Western European avant-gardism of the second half of XX century - Art History

Western European avant-gardism of the second half of XX century

P. Boulsz, P. Sheffsr, K. Stockhausen, L. No-no, J. Cage, L. Berio, D. Lighetti are the next generation of composers, called "avant-gardists" and really put in the 1950s. began experiments with such musical realities that only the earnest nonconformists considered them music. All of them were different, guided by different principles and techniques of composing music. But there was a unifying idea - unprecedented sounds, new searches for the expressiveness of the sound. If Schoenberg and his students destroyed the tonality, the principles of harmonic logic, then avant-gardists destroyed the traditional systemic nature of the means of music. Their writings were declaratively a sound disorder - as a once-famous "Hammer without a Master" P. Boulez (1954). The nine-part cycle for the contralto and exotic set of instruments, including guitar, xylorhumba, vibraphone, viola and viola flute, is far from classical regulations both in composition and in form. The fantastic sound of this work was highly appreciated by I. Stravinsky ("the beat of ice crystals in a glass"). And the desire to destroy all classical conventions before the foundation served as an excuse for Boulez to specially call his works "Polyphony X" (1951), Structures (1952), Improvisations, Double-Prism Structures and so on

The sound coloring of the music of representatives of this direction was a special subject of their searches. So, D. Lighetti in the opus, called by him "Adventures", experimented with various syllables pronounced by the choir in different emotional modalities - from insinuating whispers to hysterical squeals. And in 1962 the Hungarian master either jokingly or seriously created an extravagant "project", as it is now called, and he called it stressed by the traditional genre "Symphonic poem for 100 metronomes".

To be better understood by listeners, avant-gardists specially emphasized their sound and structural intentions with the names of their opuses. In this respect, perhaps the most striking example of Janis Ksenakis (1922-2001). A French composer of Greek descent, he was a mathematician, an architect and - even hard to call it a traditional word - composer. His first significant work was called "Metastases" (1954); in 1958 he created the pavilion of the Dutch concern Phillips' for the World Exhibition, which sounded Concert RN music as an integral part of this original structure. In the mythology of avant-garde there is a version that the sounds of this music were a recording of the burning of a microphone. On a special computer equipped with special programs, Xenakis created music that arose from the picture on the screen.

No matter how unusual the sound of Xenakis's compositions, it is important that he, the creator of the so-called "stochastic" music (ie mathematically calculated), was a pioneer of the new sound world. In this world, sounds were generated, "extracted", drawn and transformed, and then semantically comprehended, i.e. were perceived as meaningful casts of the world - then names arose, unusual, not ordinary: Anactoria, Persepolis, Diatope.

Extremely instructive is the history of the avant-garde debut of one of the generally recognized today "classics" XX century, the Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki (born 1933). In 1959, he anonymously (under the slogans) submitted three scores for the composer's competition and received three prizes. One of the scores was called "Etude for Orchestra", and in it the composer allowed his sound fantasy "to clear out" not in the computer or synthesizer space, but to put up on the head classical orchestras who rustled, wheezed and squealed, doing unthinkable operations with their instruments. They twisted the hair on the bow, played for the stand, pounded the bow with the bow on the deck. For an invitation to Italy, one had to call it an opus - the twenty-six-year-old new avant-gardist came up with "The memory of the victims of Hiroshima." Yes, such a system of emotions was unthinkable in the era of Romanticism, but also an atomic bomb dropped on innocent people, that era did not know ...

Today, the situation with understanding the content of the music of Bulez or Stockhausen, Xenakis or Penderecki is certainly not so acute, but the reason for aversionism aversion - those 1950s. or today's outrageous composer youth - is different. It is caused more by indifference, indifference, rather than denial. It is not surprising, because in the avant-gardism of the first twenty post-war years there was much rebellion, bravado of opposition, statements against - against the political structure of the world, against its ethics and morality. Today, when humankind has reconciled itself to the inevitability of socio-political evils and the immorality of pragmatic communications, the slogans of the avant-garde subversionists have largely faded. And from an aesthetic point of view, the emotions of surprise and bewilderment were not so necessary for a person to continue to eat this "spiritual food". And even then, by the beginning of the 1970s, avant-gardists began to move away from their audacity in different directions: who to neo-romanticism, who to exotic non-European music, who returned to the tradition, updated with discoveries in the field of musical sonorities and new imagery. The question of the values ​​of avant-gardism remains open, but the well-known Soviet and now United States composer Vladimir Martynov generally proclaimed the end of the composers' epoch, calling one of his journalistic books "Opus post".

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