Bezaffix (operational) ways of word formation, Mixed...

Non-word (operational) ways of word formation

1. Substantivization is a non-affixive way of word-formation of otdektivnyh nouns, in which the means of expression of word-formation relations is a radical change in the grammatical features of the derived word in comparison with the producer. Among these attributes are the partial (general categorial) meaning and the features of inflection (in particular, the decrease in the number of grammatical forms of the word). So, from the adjective diurnal , changing in sorts, numbers and cases ( daily , daily , daily , daily , daily , etc.), a substantival substantive diurnal is formed. This noun has the endings of the adjective, but in its grammatical properties is fundamentally different from the adjectives , since it does not mean a feature of the object, and the object does not change in numbers and genera, always speaking in the form of a plural. More examples of substantivation: the adjective dressing -> Substantivat dressing 'room for dressings in a medical institution'; adjective Teaching - & gt; Substantivat Teacher's 'Teacher's restroom in the school'; adjective jellied -> substance jellied.

2. The abbreviation is a wordless method of word formation, in which the derivation is the truncation of the producing basis. The corresponding derivative words are also called abbreviations: nouns ( photo & lt; - photo ; thesis & lt; - thesis), non-inducible adjectives ( air <-> i , beige beige *), non-conjugate verbs [flop <-> slam, ]

3. Addition is a generalized name for several non-word-based word-formation methods, in which the producer is represented by two or more bases, and the strictly defined order of the location of the producing bases in the structure of the derivative and the single basic stress is considered to be a derivator. The types of addition are: pure addition, abbreviation, fusion, compound word formation.

Pure addition (addition in the narrow sense) is the unification of several producing bases in a complete (uncrossed) form, usually accompanied by interfixation ( Volgograd , mud bath, daredevil , less often - without interfixes ( Novgorod, fifty). By adding, nouns, adjectives, verbs and numerals ( sound engineer, sky blue, auto-ignite, seven hundred) are formed. Relevant Derivatives are also called additions.

An abbreviation (or a compounded way of word formation) is the formation of a noun based on a combination of words whose foundations are part of the derived basis in a truncated form ( State Committee & lt; - state committee). Derivatives obtained by this method are called abbreviations, or complex words. The abbreviation is usually synonymous with the original word combination. The following types of abbreviations are distinguished:

1) alphabetic - the addition of the names of the initial letters in the producing bases [MIGU (pronounced as [em-pe-ge-y]) <-> Moscow State Pedagogical University,

2) phonemic - addition of initial phonemes of producing bases (pronounced [wound]) <-> United States academy of science

3) alphabetic-phonemic - for example, in the abbreviation CSKA [ts-es-ka] <-> The central sport club of the army combined the names of the letters q < [i] and c [es], as well as phonemes/k/and/a /, pronounced together as [ka];

4) syllabic - the result of combining the initial parts of the producing bases ( trade union committee <- trade union committee,

5) phoneme-syllabic {iMLI & lt; - Institute of World Literature

6) syllabic-words are the union of the initial element of one word with another word, represented in full form ( State Duma <-> State Duma )

7) syllabic-word-form - the union of the initial element of one word with the case form of another word ( head of office & lt; - head of the database)]

8) syllabic "telescopic", the so-called initial-final (moped motorcycle + bike).

A word-by-word method of word-formation (or compositional) is a kind of addition, which is the formation of derived words by combining the generating words entirely, together with the inflections {museum-flat , a sofa bed, an exhibition-sale).

Complex words occupy an intermediate position between an integral derivative and a combination of words. Although they are fully formed, they are characterized by considerable formal and semantic autonomy of components, many of which retain the ability to decline within the framework of

Derivative (y: carrier rocket, carrier rocket, carrier rocket). Compound nouns {dress-suit, Alexander Pushkin) are formed in a complex way numeral ( twenty-five, one hundred forty-six).

A fusion is another kind of addition, which is the formation of adjectives and verbal derivatives on the basis of a combination of words and word forms associated with subordinate relations ( phosphorus-containing <-> containing phosphorus, insane < who is devoid of the mind, book charity & lt; - do good.) When analyzing the splices, one must bear in mind that affixes of the type -a- in the insane, -o - in charity, being in the composition of the inflections - indicators of subordinate communication, in the structure of the derivative are included in the basis and serve as nominally insignificant interlining interlocks.

Mixed ways of word formation

1. A prefixally-spaced word-formation method (or addition with prefixing) is a mixed method of adjective and verbal word-formation, when the addition of producing bases is accompanied by the prefixing ( pacify <-> world, creating + y-; blue-black & lt; - blue, black + from -).

2. In the suffix-complex way of word-formation (also called addition with suffixation) the addition of producing bases is accompanied by suffixation. This method is used in the formation of nouns, adjectives and adverbs. Compare: navigator & lt; - sea, swim + - tel ; Climber & lt; - rock, climb + zero word-formative suffix with the face value (compare the suffix -help in navigator); meat mincer & lt; - meat, chopping + -k-; left bank <-> left, shore + white tooth <-> white, tooth + zero word-formation suffix with an indicative value (cf. the value of the suffix -n - in left-bank); self-propelled 'moving in its own motion, without additional traction (about moving mechanisms and vehicles)' <-> i, walking + -th.

3. The prefix-suffix-complex way of word-formation is the addition of producing bases, which is simultaneously accompanied by prefixation and suffixation ( ubiquitous & lt; - all places + - + -n -).

4. The fusion with suffixation is such a mixed way of word formation, in which the fusion of elements

The generating base is accompanied by suffixation ( doing nothing & lt; - doing nothing + -mm/-; nemoguznayka & lt; - I can not know + -c-; otherworldly that side ; stunning & lt; -emm-s could + -and-).

5. The abbreviation with suffixation is the mixed way of noun formation, in which the contraction of the producing basis is accompanied by suffixation ( great bicycle ; telly & lt; - TV ; animation ]; simple, hostel.

6. The abbreviation with prefixation and suffixation is a mixed way of forming adjectives of the type str. ownerless , when a prefix and a suffix are added to the abbreviated producing basis (host, host) .

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