Category of the person, Category of the number, Category...

Facial Class

The inflectional category of the person is characteristic for the verbal forms of the present and future time of the indicative mood, as well as for the imperative mood; it is expressed in contrasting the forms of three persons:

1st go {go, walk, eat, walk, eat),

2nd go {go, go, eat; go, go, eat),

3rd go {goes, walks, eats; go, walk, eat).

The verbal forms of the person in the sentence are consistent with the corresponding forms of pronouns (i go, you go ...). In combination with nouns, the forms of the third verb face are always used: The train goes quickly ; Domes will be built in the summer. The exception is the coordination of the verb forms of the 2nd person with the nouns in the function of the reference: Commodity and u, believe ... (P.).

The grammatical information of the verbal forms of the person complements the personal meaning of the corresponding nominal forms.

The forms of the 1st person indicate that the verbal sign characterizes the speaker (I speak, read) »,

the forms of the 2nd person indicate that the verbal sign characterizes the listener ( you say, you read) »,

forms of the third person indicate the attribution of the verbal sign to the "subject of speech", which is not a participant in this act of speech ( he reads, writes).

The verbal forms of the face also have portable meanings. For example, not only the forms of the second person can have a generalized-personal meaning: Do you remember everything that happened to you a year ago! (Yu.K.), but also the forms of the 1st and 3rd forms, th person: What we do not store , having lost - crying (Poel.); I'll divorce someone else's troubles with my hands (Ate); Chicks in the fall count (Ate).

The form of the third person, used outside of the combination with the subject, can have an indefinite-personal meaning: The doorbell is ringing ; In the street, cheerfully shout. Finally, with the form of the 3rd person singular, a typical manifestation of impersonality is connected: On the street, the tick ; It's blowing from the window.

Number Category

For conjugated and participial forms of the verb, the category of the number is characteristic (go-go, say-spoke, will tell - will tell, say - tell, take - take, read - read , broken - broken).

Verbs are consistent in number with nouns and pronouns. When a verb is combined with a noun, the numerical form of the verb only duplicates the corresponding grammatical characteristic of the name (cf .: the athlete runs 'the unitarity of the subject of the action' - the athletes run 'dissected multiplicity of subjects of the action').

If you agree on the verb with the pronoun you the verb plural form may indicate ns for the plurality, but for the singularity of the subject: You, Sergei Vladimirovich, wanted to finish the report by Monday (' singularity + politeness').

Category of the genus

The category of the grammatical gender is manifested in the forms of the past tense of the indicative and subjunctive moods of the conjugated forms of the verb and in the participles ( stood, stood, stood , would be, would be ; playing, playing, playing, brought, brought, brought)

Verbs are consistent in the genus with nouns and pronouns, duplicating the grammatical information about the biological field of the subject of the action, which potentially can be expressed with the help of its generic indices name (cf .: the boy sang 'male biological sex' the girl sang 'female biological sex'). Features are noted only for conjugated verb forms of the middle genus, which, in addition to indicating the middle genus of the noun or pronoun, can express the significance of the impersonality of the action ( evening, , would be dying).

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