Classification of the secondary terms of the sentence
As already mentioned, the composition of the secondary members of the sentence, their functions, the system of connections, and finally their number in a specific sentence can be different, and therefore the structure of a simple sentence is characterized by an infinite variety. The minor members themselves can be systematized on the basis of certain characteristics or indicators.
The value of classification is determined by the extent to which the criterion underlying it is essential. In the practice of teaching the United States language, the principle of classifying secondary members of the proposal, which takes into account both the content and the formal side of them, was fixed. The foundations of this principle were laid by FI Buslaev, who considered secondary members in two ways: by syntactic use and by value.
In modern interpretation, this principle involves the classification of secondary members based on their syntactic relations and syntactic links with the member being explained. According to the established tradition, on the basis of these criteria, four types of secondary members of the proposal are distinguished: definition, application, addition, circumstances.
In the characteristics of these types of secondary members of the proposal, the main provisions of the doctrine of the word combination should be taken into account. Especially important are the principles and techniques for determining syntactic relations expressed by secondary members, or, in other words, established between the explained and secondary members as components of the phrase used in constructing the sentence.
In describing the secondary members of the proposal, the main attention is paid to the analysis of the general (categorical) value of the secondary term, as well as the particular values in which it is realized in a specific sentence-values directly related to formal ways of expressing them, with certain indicators. Let us pass to the characterization of the system of forms of secondary members. The central element of this system is opposition (opposition) morphologized-non-morphologized secondary terms & quot ;.
Mirrorized secondary clauses of the sentence are represented by such parts of speech, by such word forms, the grammatical meaning of which is adequate to the general (categorical) value of the given sentence member.
The non-orthologized secondary members of the sentence are represented by such parts of speech, with such word forms, whose grammatical meaning is inadequate to the general meaning of a particular secondary term: they coincide only partially. At the same time, a limited circle of word forms of this part of speech is used as a secondary term, and sometimes the lexico-semantic plan is affected.
In the composition of the sentence, the definition performs a predominantly word function. A definition is a secondary term of the sentence, expressing the general meaning of the characteristic, which is realized in a variety of particular meanings. It can be subordinated to any member of the sentence, expressed by a noun or a substantivized word. Definition of 1st degree refers to the subject. Between the definition and the word being determined, attributive relationships are established.
The methods of expressing a definition are manifold. Morphologized definitions are represented by those categories of words to which the value
Prison is inherent as a generalized (categorical) meaning of a part of speech or a large class of words within the part of speech: adjectives, participles, ordinal, and adjectives. These are classes of compatible words. This type of definition is called consistent.
The general meaning of the characteristic is manifested in the specified categories of words in the form of particular values inherent in them: qualities, properties, affiliations, order, the sign created by the action, etc .; cf .: Looks closely at me, my round , cheeky , a snub-nosed face in a cherry rowan (Ch.); The last memory of the summer has disappeared (Paust.); The screams of the beginning child are finally fed up with an intolerable (AT); But this first story on the train was especially memorable to me (Paust.); The red and yellow watchdogs (A.T.) were burning on the wide , barely visible river
The non-morphological definitions are represented by those categories of words, those word forms for which the value of the characteristic is not characteristic - in these definitions the feature manifests itself in the form of various characteristics of the object (determined) through its various relations to other subjects. Such definitions are mainly expressed by various case and prepositional word forms of nouns.
An adverb is a less productive means of expressing non-morphologized definitions. Firstly, it is a group of words with a qualitative meaning ( soft beans , knacker , etc.), which are listed somewhat arbitrarily, by virtue of their immutability, although the verb does not combine : I affirm: it is ridiculous to feed elephants with soft-boiled eggs! (MG) Secondly, these are qualitative and circumstantial adverbs used to determine nouns of verbal or correlative in semantics with those: Not without reason Parasha so friendly to her and beckoning to her for some conversations alone ... (Ch.); cf .: turn left - turn left; way back - go back.
The dependence of non-morphologized definitions on the word being determined is manifested in the form of control or adjacency, therefore they are called inconsistent.
Specific forms and meanings of non-morphologized definitions are numerous and varied. Let us analyze the patterns of usage of this type of definitions and the principles of their characteristics, paying attention to the most productive ones.
As uncoordinated definitions, all forms of indirect nouns are used, both without a preposition, and with various prepositions. The values expressed by them are made up of the meanings of cases, prepositions, taking into account the generalized semantics of the defined and defining names, and in analyzing specific forms - and content of the utterance (the context of the sentence).
The importance of these criteria is conveniently shown in the use of the "genitive unprepossessing". With a definitive noun with a specific-objective meaning, this form of definition expresses belonging to the person or thing: Nikita especially noted the face of the digger Tikhon Vyalov, the bilful, (MG); Even the willow leaves did not move (Paust.); His figure in an old dark robe almost merged with the dark leather of the chair (MG); Behind the wall of the cottage at night, a neighbor's garden rustled (Paust.). With a definite abstract noun with the meaning of action, quality, this form of definition expresses the relation to the subject: There was no sound even of the whistling of birds (Paust.); Grandmother's conversation with her mother was quiet and thoughtful (Ch.); The sweetish water-lily is mixed with the resin tar (Paust.). However, with specific and abstract nouns, the indicated form of definition in the context of the sentence can acquire the value of comparison, the assimilation: Telling , Dmitri with the pleasure of a cabman drinking tea (MG ); He was twice as old as me, but he had any experience - with that young poodle (M.G.).
The prepositional forms of non-morphologized definitions are even more diverse in meaning, more complex and difficult to analyze: the relationship between semantics and the form of the word being defined and the definition is supplemented by the meaning of the preposition. Among these forms of definition, you can specify a number of productive:
1) the definition in the form of the instrumental with the preposition c expresses the characteristic of the object by the presence in it (in it, with it) of another object as an essential detail, as a specific highlight: near the house with a mezzanine (Paust.); Rare halos with road tracks disappeared in the fog (AT); The fruit table is already ready (Ч.);
2) the definition in the form of the prepositional with the preposition in expresses the characteristic of the surface of the object - covered with smth., dressed in something. *: Grandmother stood in the doorway of the closet with naked hands in the test and moaning (Ch.); A jacket came into the vestibule (Paust.); Across the road you can see the m bars in the lush hats of snow on the roofs (Ch.)3) the definition, represented by various prepositional-case spatial (local) word forms, expresses the characteristic of the object by location, by source or direction of its movement, displacement: The wall against the window is stucco plastered with dirty lime (M. G.); The door to the porch was opened (AT); The light penetrated into the darkness from the window above the door (B.); Both of them draw a white , quiet in the forest (Kupr.); The wind from Ladoga recounted the rare flotilla lights (Paust.); The pilot drove to the hut on the shore (Paust.); The sister showed us the way to the infirmary (Paust.).
Definitions in prepositional-case forms retain various other circumstantial shades (of time, reason, purpose, etc.): Marvelous has long been accustomed to my departure at dawn (Paust.); Now Artemiev went to the dining room for convalescents (Sim.).
Thus, non-morphological definitions are more diverse in meaning and in form than morphological ones. Thanks to them, the possibilities of expressing different in content characteristics of objects in the composition of specific proposals are significantly expanded. The definitions of the two species not only complement each other well, but also in many cases act as synonyms, they can replace each other: The road ran along a forest clearing in a pine forest (Paust, cf .: forest clearing ); The driver braked at the house and on the outskirts (Sim, cf .: the outlying house); The blue sky of May was shining above the ravine (M.G., Wed: May sky).
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