Some words in speech are not stressed. They adjoin to other words, making with them one phonetic word. A bland word ahead of the shock, to which it adjoins, is called a proclature. Procliques are usually monosyllabic prepositions, conjunctions and some particles: on the mountain ; to me; sister and brother; said , | to come; I do not know. A stupid word that stands after the shock, to which it adjoins, is called an emotional word. Enclitics are usually monosyllabic particles: say, he, will come. Some monosyllabic prepositions and particles can take on the stress, and then the next independent word is an enclitic: on the back, under the arms, from the forest, without a trace, was not.
Absolute proclitics and enclitics, adhering to the basic word, merge with it into one phonetic word, where the vowels and consonants are pronounced, as in one lexical word: up to the garden (compare annoyance ), na force (cf. violence), with a free (compare with a free ); Lei-ka (compare watering can), also (compare also), have become stronger (compare have grown stronger).
Relative proclitics and enclitics, not having their stress and adhering to the shock word, do not completely lose some of the phonetic signs of an independent word, consisting in the peculiarities of the pronunciation of certain sounds. For example, an unstressed union but preserves in pronunciation the sound [o]: frost, but the sun [no-soyo] (cf. in the sun [na -son]]). In some unstressed pronouns, vowels that are not characteristic of unstressed syllables are pronounced: those forests [t'e-l'isa] (compare tela [t'il'isa]) ; deacon he [d '^ k-op] (compare deacon [d ^ aken]) and others
Some words may have an accent weaker than the usual stress in independent words. Such an accent is called weak, denoted by the sign ['], in contrast to the main stress, denoted by the sign [' |.
There are some disyllabic and three-syllable prepositions and conjunctions that can be weak-hindered: before leaving, around the house, if you can, because it's cold. The relative words: forest , from where we came out, the letter , which sent ', simple numerals in combination with nouns: two hours, ten rubles', some pronouns: you were looking for, he came, his sister, bundles be, become: the morning was frosty, he became a teacher ; words with modal values: Know yourself praises ; was going to leave, would come, used to, and is silent.
In some words in speech, along with the main stress, there can be an additional stress, which is closer to the beginning of the word. This stress is called an incidental one. It usually occurs in polysyllabic words. Partial and complex words can be distinguished by accent: Old United States, pedagogical institute, building materials, prefixes: anticorrosive, pre-perestroika, after-dinner, pro-American.
A side accent appears mainly in words rarely used, special, bookish, with clearly distinguishable parts: fur farm , waterproof, Old Slav (compare the widely used words St. John's Wort , water supply, old-fashioned).
With three or four bases in the word, three accents are possible (two or three first side, and the last is the main one): aerial photography , Midsblininodel or
Phrase, syntagmatic stress and accentuation
If the phonetic syntagma or phrase includes several phonetic words, then one word carries a stronger emphasis. This allocation of one of the words of the phonetic syntagma or phrase can be carried out with the help of syntactic and phrase accentuations. For example: Lizaveta Ivanovna was sitting in her office in her ball gown, immersed in deep reflections (P.); The Countess did not answer (P., the syntagmatic and phrase stresses are marked with the  sign.
Syntactical and phrase stresses are not related to the meaning: the word allocated by this stress is not more important in the semantic sense. The function of syntactic and phrasal stresses consists in the phonetic union of several words into a phonetic syntagma or phrase; these accents are divided into text by syntagmas and phrases. Syntactical and phrase stresses stand on the last word of the syntagma and phrase and point to their border - the end of the syntagma and phrases. According to their physical characteristics, the phrase and syntagmatic stresses coincide. Therefore, they are usually combined under the same name - phrase stress.
The emphasis in a syntagma on a stronger accent of a word to emphasize its special meaning is called accentification. It is usually stronger than phrasal and falls on any word of the phrase (syntagma). The emphasis can be related to:
1) with an explicit or implied opposition: I will go to the cinema, not you; I'll go to the movies (no matter what); I'll go to the movies (and not to another place); He did not come before, but after dinner ;
2) with a subjective evaluation of the word by the speakers: They can answer any question,
3) with the selection of the message (new message): The edges have flown away.
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