Creative Stylistics studies the problems of verbal creativity, the verbal identity of the author of the text.
Creativity is a kind of human activity in the process of which new values are created. The creation of spiritual values is associated with the realization of the creative language abilities of the individual - that complex of psychological properties that allows an individual to use the linguistic system as a material for verbal creativity. Language creativity arises on the basis of the need for aesthetic interpretation of the world. Creative attitude to speech is characteristic for all spheres of speech activity. We know talented politicians, public figures, scientists, diplomats, journalists, preachers, "geniuses of informal communication", and in the field of artistic literature creativity is built into the principle, cultivated and infinitely improved.
The creative side of speech activity and its textual results have always been the focus of stylistic science. V.Vinogradov attributed the study of individual creative styles to the basic problems of stylistics. Researchers of artistic speech offered consistent classification of idiostyle of outstanding poets and writers. Currently, the creative side of speech activity in the framework of other functional styles is being actively studied. Universality, systemic character, functional originality (aiming at revealing the aesthetic function) allow us to distinguish creative stylistics in an independent scientific direction of the stylistics of the modern United States language.
Aesthetics of the language and aesthetics of speech
The aesthetic interpretation of the world is directly related to the sphere of artistic creativity. The result of cognitive, evaluative, transformative, playful activity of the artist are the aesthetic significance of works of art, including the art of speech. Perception of a work of art implies an aesthetic assessment of the latter. A triad is formed: creative activity-the result of creative activity-the appraisal perception of the product created in the process of creative activity. " Both the creative activity itself and the perception of its materialized results can be accompanied by an authorial aesthetic task, an aesthetic goal-setting. It should be noted that in one terminological series there are synonyms creative, creative, creative and the adjective aesthetic. Such a semantic rapprochement is not accidental. Aesthetics is a spider about the laws of existence and forms of artistic creativity. Modern aesthetics also examines the value relationship of a person (social group, people) to the world, the nature of aesthetic activity and aesthetic activity, the system and the subsystem of values. Aesthetics reveals the value orientations of the multifaceted creative reflection of the world, the principles and attitudes of the perception of "products" aesthetic (not only artistic activity).
The fundamental categories of aesthetics are beautiful and ugly, sublime and base, tragic and comic. Through the prism of these categories, the problem of taste, understood as "the ability to perceive and evaluate the fruits of artistic creativity and, more broadly, - a diverse creative activity, one of the types of which is creative speech activity, is analyzed. If the latter is carried out on the basis of the goal-setting associated with comprehension of high and low, tragic and comic, beautiful and ugly, then such an activity acquires an aesthetic character. The concept of creative speech activity is broader than the concept of aesthetic speech activity. Aesthetic speech activity covers the process of speech production and the process of its perception. Product aesthetic speech activity - a work of speech, which has aesthetic value. Aesthetic function is certainly characteristic for works of art literature, but it can manifest itself in other functional styles.
What is the aesthetics of the language? Is the language a special aesthetic object? To answer this question, let us turn to the lexicon, which reflects the character of the perception of language as a national aesthetic value. United States vocabulary contains many nominations that highlight beauty as an aesthetic quality of language and speech. It is no accident that rhetoric is called United States eloquence, and a well-spoken person is called eloquent. Beauty in United States traditional culture is associated with the depth of thought and the naturalness of speech behavior. The contemptuous-ironical assessment invariably accompanies the perception of rhetoric. Despised and ridiculed rednis - empty talkers, pozyory. In recent years, a new meaning of the adjective pretentious, arose which is used to express disapproval of speech, characterized by ostentation.
In the dictionary of epithets, there are stable attributive escorts that distinguish the facets of language and speech, aesthetically significant in the United States communicative culture. Let us single out those of them that contain a positive emotional-aesthetic assessment of the object being characterized. The beauty of the language is steadily perceived as a valuable quality: the language is magnificent, beautiful, beautiful, wonderful, wonderful. Eyetically positively estimated euphony: the language is sonorous, euphonious, melodic, musical, melodic, mellifluous. Aesthetically significant are the simplicity of linguistic expression (epithets artless, artless, accessible, natural, lively, genuine, understandable, simple); correctness (impeccable, impeccable, exemplary, correct, pure) laconism (concise, concise lyric, laconic, laconic). A positive aesthetic evaluation covers the figurative possibilities of the language (expressive, picturesque, picturesque, imaginative, embossed, bright), and the manifestation of the linguistic identity (individual, colorful, unique, original, original, free, fresh). As aesthetically significant, accuracy and sharpness of thought (catchy, sparkling, accurate, witty, sharp, sharp, juicy) are judged. national linguistic consciousness is associated with the emotionality of the language and the expression of ozhitelnyh, including strong emotions (high, elevated, festive, excited, emotional, soulful, tender, joyous, fire, fiery, impulsive, heart).
So, in traditional United States culture in general and communicative culture in particular, the language is recognized as an aesthetic value. However, "all linguistic quantities in direct experience (neither in psychological, nor in physiological) are not at all given to us, but can be deduced by us only from the processes of speaking and understanding." All that is written, spoken and understood, is the language material. The aesthetic impact of the language and the means of the language is established by its carriers on the basis of the linguistic material given in the experiment. The immediate object of aesthetic evaluation is speech behavior and its features, falling into the focus of perception, individual linguistic and speech; certain qualities of utterances and texts.
The aesthetic attitude to language is formed on the basis of certain oppositions. The universal opposition beautiful (beautiful) - ugly (ugly) is reflected in a number of particular oppositions: euphonious - cacophonous; meaningful - meaningless; correct - abnormal; clean - clogged; simple - complex; laconic, many-sided; new - known; marked by individuality - standard; emotional - emotionless; Expressive - inexpressive.
The verbal reality reveals the unsettledness of a particular aesthetic assessment exclusively behind the left member of each of the noted oppositions. One can not, for example, disagree with L. Pushkin, who casually remarked: Like a mouthful of ruddy without a smile, without a grammatical error I do not like United States speech. At the same time, a grammatical error in the speech of the school teacher is unlikely Will cause a positive aesthetic response. Linguistic innovation always attracts attention, but the phrase Respect and uvazhuha , which has moved from youth jargon to the common language, has no obvious prospect of entering the literary language. It is functionally unsuitable for a sincere expression of reverence, gratitude towards the addressee (for nouns with the suffix -yx - the negative meaning was fixed: show-off, chernukha, porno, zakazuha). The combination is also excluded in the text of the official greeting letter as violating the cultural tradition, genre and stylistic norms. As we see, the aesthetic significance of the linguistic element and speech production in each specific case is established on a functional basis.
Sh. Bally, GO Vinokur, BA Larin, A. Meie, AM Peshkovsky, L. V. Shcherba, etc. wrote about the aesthetic function of the language. It is known, however, that language is a phenomenon polyfunctional. Along with informational, communicative and pragmatic functions, utterance and text in a specific communicative situation can have a special, emotional, sensory-aesthetic impression. LV Shcherba associated with the aesthetic function of language the whole arsenal of expressive means, while R. Jakobson and many of his followers attributed the entire stylistic area to those linguistic spheres in which the aesthetic function predominated. Indeed, the basis of the aesthetic potential of the language is its stylistic resources, ordered paradigmatically. They provide the native speaker with the freedom of an aesthetic choice of options, and the language system as a whole provides the realization of the mechanisms of creative activity, which is carried out with an emphasis on the expression of a "purely individual thought," ie. affective and aesthetic content. "
The distinction between the aesthetics of the language and the aesthetics of speech is based on the fact that the "first" refers to the resources and possibilities of the language, the second refers to the realization of such resources and opportunities in a particular text, from a particular writer, scientist or simply writing person who understands well, however, the peculiarities of a native or very close to him language ". The inseparable connection between language and speech is beyond doubt. Language is learned, it is mastered through speech and is created in speech. Language, its stylistic resources - is the source of aesthetically motivated creative speech activity. The richer the stylistic resources, the wider the possibilities of speech creativity. In the process of creative activity, not only the writer but also the speaker, not only the writer and scholar, but also the preacher, politician, publicist, schoolteacher, guide (the enumeration can be continued) turn out to be in the situation of a problematic choice of an aesthetically effective language unit.
The aesthetic attitude to the most linguistic fact demonstrates the selection by the speaker/writer of that, and not another language means, which in the concrete communicative situation is realized as affecting. The aesthetic function of the language in its initial form is manifested as soon as the speaker begins to pay attention to the external form of his speech, somehow evaluate the possibilities of the verbal expression & quot ;. The question is how? (as it is better, more beautiful, more precise, how to express the idea in an imaginative manner, how sincerely to express your admiration, how to make a good joke, how to adequately respond to an insult, etc.), with which a purposeful choice of a stylistic means is connected, aesthetic possibilities of language. The problem situation is another factor that stimulates the aesthetic activity of the individual.
The aesthetic significance of stylistics in speech, as pointed out by AM Peshkovsky, is revealed through the experimental reception of a replacement. So, in the segment of the utterance Wonderful Dnieper in quiet weather ... (N. Gogol) the characterizer is wonderful can be replaced by one of the synonyms. The synonym is beautiful reduces the hyperbolicity of the image; the synonym is beautiful preserves hyperbolicity, it does not express riddles and secrets. The synonym is picturesque at the forefront of perception, puts forward the beauty of the outer, landscape. The meaning of each of the lexical variants contains the semantic component different in beauty & quot ;, and beauty is the actual aesthetic category. However, the variant chosen by the writer is wonderful conveys a capacious hyperbolic notion of the incomprehensible mystery of beauty - inexplicable, amazing, unprecedented, attractive, enticing. The noted increments determine the aesthetic function of the word, which was not invented by Gogol, but was selected by him in the process of creative activity. Aesthetically motivated selection of the language variant allows us to assert that speech not only realizes, but also improves the aesthetic potential of the language.
In the process of speech creativity, the requiring emotions in a situation or aesthetic event motivated selection of the language element and, as necessary, its transformation or creation of a new aesthetically effective tool. The emotion presupposes the presence of a stimulus of aesthetic experience. We give two examples that are not comparable at first glance - from children's speech (1) and from United States classical poetry (2).
(1) Four-year-old Fed read a famous poem by S. Marshak. The boy first heard the word lady, which, thanks to the book illustration, received in his mind a picture-imprint. After a while Fedya runs to his brother: - Go look! Grandmother wears a hat in front of a mirror ... Such a dad! The aesthetic experience is caused by the joy of metamorphosis: the grandmother, whose grandson was used to seeing in a home dressing gown, was transformed into a lady. Emotional and aesthetic combined in the word lady, conveying a living visual representation. An imaginative analogy (a lady in a poem-a converted grandmother) allows the child to comprehend a new concrete-sensual impression: a grandmother in a dressing-gown is a familiar image; grandmother in a hat - an image of a non-standard. The need to share his impressions with his brother testifies to the communicative orientation of the aesthetics of everyday speech.
(2) In a genuinely artistic work, "feeling" accompanies the comprehension by the author of the "aesthetic event", which, as MM Bakhtin pointed out, "assumes two non-coinciding consciousnesses". Thus, the fateful duel and the tragic death of A. Pushkin caused a deep emotional shock in United States society. The bitterness of the nationwide loss was expressed with unusual force by M. Lermontov in the poem "The Death of the Poet" (1837). The high degree of emotional-aesthetic generalization is based on the irreconcilable opposition of the national and high-society consciences. This opposition is missed through the aesthetic categories of the high tragic and base. The high tonality stains the poetic interpretation of a real tragic event: the death of the Poet, the wondrous genius, the singer, the wonderful songs that made up our glory, the Poet, who possessed a free bold gift, a free heart , not inclined proud head before the slanderers. Righteous anger and undisguised scorn are addressed to the perpetrators of the poet's death - vicious, pathetic, insignificant, flattering, vile, mercenary, bloodthirsty. Aesthetically significant nominations: slander, maliciously persecuted, for fun, slandered; Well, have fun; pitiful babble of excuse; empty heart; empty praise unnecessary chorus; weasels are false; "The light, the greedy crowd, the executioners, arrogant descendants, the fathers, the offended families, the slanderers are insignificant, mocking ignoramuses, confidants of debauchery.
Tragedy embodied in the poetic masterpiece of Lermontov, strengthens the functions of figurative, moral, ideological influence of the text, motivates the "magic function" (R. Jacobson), which is implemented in the final stanza of the poem: But there is also a court of God, confidants of debauchery! There is a terrible court: he is waiting. & lt; ... & gt; And you will not wash away all your black blood of the Poet with righteous blood! The aesthetic influence of the text is strengthened by the periphrases that require resolving: His murderer cold-bloodedly struck (About Charles Dantes); Like that singer, unknown, but dear (About Vladimir Lensky, the hero of the novel "Eugene Onegin").
Organic for the aesthetic event wrestling two minds had, as you know, a factual continuation: poem "Death of the poet" distributed in the lists. The emotional and aesthetic impact of the text was unprecedented: people memorized it by heart, shuddering from hatred of the murderers and at the same time from pity for the deceased poet. Meanwhile, an investigative case was opened. It was a matter of impermissible verses written by the cornet of the Life Guards Regiment of the Hussar Regiment Lermontov, and of the distribution of these by the provincial secretary Raevsky. " M. Lermontov and S. Raevsky were arrested. This means that the text was perceived as a political declaration, threatening the foundations of the state system. And yet it is obvious that when a combination of a number of functions is predominant, determining, generalizing in the poem is an aesthetic function.
These examples illustrate creative speech activity, the stimulus of which is an aesthetic experience. In the first case, empathy accompanies the development by the child of an aesthetically significant private situation. The stimulus of aesthetic experience in the second case is an event of national scale, the comprehension of which entails an aesthetic generalization based on emotional, ethical, ideological, and stylistic contrasts, which enhance the awareness of tragedy. The aesthetic function, therefore, can accompany the use of a single word in the composition of an utterance and be recognized as the leading function of the text. In the latter case, aesthetic generalization is associated with the deep aspects of mastering reality, is not a contextual increment, but an integral part of the conceptual meaning of a work of art.
The style of everyday speech can also be related to the struggle of the "two minds". Here is a fragment of the conversation between female workers. One of them shares her emotional feelings with her friend: her husband attracted an energetic woman, an impudent woman to her networks. For the sake of preserving the family, the deceived wife decided to "put the razluchnitsu in place": - How did you tell her everything? Otmaterila? -Not in United States! I talked in such a jargon, and shook myself ... For both friends, the effective force of sharply reduced units of language is evident. Women are aware of the norms of a cultural ban on the use of obscene words and expressions, but the clash of the "two minds" (the guardian of conjugal fidelity and razluchnitsy) motivates the choice of tattooed language expression tools that transmit the intensity of emotions. A low act is characterized by deliberately used abuse. It is noteworthy that in a conversation with a friend the insulted woman does not literally reproduce her words, but merely points out in general terms the selected layer of funds (not in United States, she spoke in slang). A complex of verbal signals forming aesthetics of low , marks the conflictuality of the aesthetic event experienced.
The aesthetic function is also manifested in journalism. For example, on the front page of the newspaper Arguments and Facts announces the main publications of the weekly. The purpose of the announcement is to attract the attention of a mass audience, to stir up interest, to stimulate possible discussion of problematic materials. In one of the issues of the newspaper (August 2011) an article "Lermontov: an unmarried loner or a bilious bastard" is being announced. The same type of structured members of the speech series predict the non-alternative aesthetic result of the reader's perception (or - or). At the same time, the stylistic center becomes the right member of opposition. The hint that Lermontov was doing dastardly and low deeds, destroys the romantic image of the great poet, formed in the national consciousness, prepares the reader for chewing "fried" facts, sensational details of the poet's private life. Manipulation of the reader's point of view is calculated on the philistine tastes of the audience of the yellow press. Declaring the presence of low in high, the newspaper entices a part of the readership of tabloid publications. Aesthetic installation is merged with commercial.
Another example: in conditions of market competition, the suggestion of the word is often used, i.e. his ability to inspire certain ideas. So, in the names of drinks, products in our days, the activity of the adjective United States: United States kvass/sugar/chocolate/chill; United States vodka/sausage; United States ice cream. Aesthetic increments its & quot ;, reliable & quot ;, proven & quot ;, enjoyable mask the influence function: unobtrusive incentive to buy.
In the process of aesthetically motivated creative speech activity, a value assimilation and evaluation of facts of reality takes place with the help of the language and on the basis of universal aesthetic categories. The aesthetic function of speech is based on communicative and pragmatic functions. Communicative-pragmatic settings stimulate or "brake" aesthetic intentions of the speaker and the writer. Maximal and expedient (V. V. Vinogradov) the realization of the aesthetic function finds in artistic speech. In comparison with other aesthetically oriented texts, the text of the text is characterized by an increased aesthetic load, for the author of the work of art is the "installation on" as " (Yu. M. Lotman), which allows expressing an individual attitude to the language itself and to life material.
Thus, in United States culture in general and in communicative culture in particular, language is perceived as a special aesthetic value. The aesthetics of the language is predetermined by its resources, primarily by stylistic resources. The aesthetic potential of the language is realized in speech. The aesthetic function of the individual language tools used in speech and the aesthetic function of individual speech works are associated with the process of empathizing the speech producer into an aesthetically significant communicative situation or with the process of feeling into an aesthetic event. The result of these processes can be aesthetic increment and/or aesthetic generalization, which cause the aesthetic experience of the addressee of speech. The aesthetics of speech is based on creative speech activity, presupposing motivated selection, the combination of linguistic means, their promotion, transformation, and the creation of units marked by the novelty of the expression plan and/or content plan. The aesthetic function of language, speech, text is inseparably linked with the communicative function and can be combined with information, emotional, pragmatic, magical functions. The most vivid and complete aesthetic function is manifested in artistic speech.
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