As a result of studying this topic, the student must:

- know the functions and properties of the document, its difference from information, ways of unifying and standardizing documents;

- be able to apply tools and ways of documenting in management activities;

- own skills of assigning a document to a particular documentation system.

Document as a subject of study

For a proper understanding of document management as a scientific discipline, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the concept of document and the stages of its development.

In some cases, there may be confusion in understanding the values ​​of the document and information. Information surrounds a person in life, but not all information will be fixed and become a document, therefore the concept of the document is not identical with the notion of information.

Information - information (messages, data), regardless of the form of their presentation.

Thus, the concept of information is much broader than the concepts document & quot ;.

In management practice, information is created and used for the purposeful management of an object, production, structure. The following requirements are imposed on management information: completeness, efficiency, reliability, accuracy, targeting, accessibility for human perception. In addition, the requirements of validity, timeliness, and sufficiency of information are significant.

Until the second half of the XIX century. the basis of information technology of documentation was a pen, inkwell and ledger. Communication was carried out by sending separate documents and packages. The productivity of the management information system was low: each document was copied manually, in addition to accounts that were also summarized manually, and statistical accounting journals; the content of information for decision-making was limited.

Change the manual information technology in the late XIX century. came mechanical & quot ;. The invention of a writing machine, telephone, voice recorder, and modernization of the public mail system caused fundamental changes in the technology of creating and processing documents and, consequently, in the productivity of the work. Essentially, mechanical technology paved the way for the formation of technology for documenting the management of modern institutions.

In order for information to become the basis for the adoption, consolidation and implementation of management decisions, it must be recorded, recorded.

Documentation is the recording of information on various media according to established rules, which is a prerequisite for including information in information resources.

Documentation in many cases is mandatory, prescribed by law and government regulations: "Legislation of the United States or agreement of the parties may establish requirements for documenting information. In federal executive bodies, information is documented in the manner established by the Government of the United States. The rules of record keeping and circulation of documents established by other state bodies and local self-government bodies within their competence must comply with the requirements established by the Government of the United States in the field of document management and document circulation for federal executive bodies. "

Modern documentation includes the use of all available methods of fixing and transferring information. In the management apparatus, documentation is carried out both in natural language (manuscript, typescript, telegram, telephone message, faxgram, machinegram, videogram), and in artificial languages ​​using the appropriate media (magnetic, laser disks, etc.). Depending on the means of documentation used, there are several ways of documenting: text; cinema, photo, background, video documenting (analog) and electronic (digital).

In contrast to information, a document (from the Latin documentum - a sample, evidence, proof) can be defined as:

- information recorded on the media with details that allow it to be identified;

- a text file that is produced or read using a word processor or desktop publishing program;

- the result of the display of facts, events, objects, phenomena of objective reality and human thought activity.

The amount of information in the document can be calculated using the formula

where - the volume of the descriptive part of the document; Wn - the volume of the information part of the document, KB.

In turn, the volume of the descriptive part

where W i is the amount of information in the i-th field of the descriptive part of the document; n - number of fields in the descriptive part of the document.

The volume of the information part of the document

where N 3 - the number of records in the information part of the document; W j - the amount of information in the j - m field of the information part of the document; t is the number of fields in the record of the information part of the document.

With these dependencies, you can determine the need for disk storage for storing documents, the load on the local network, justifiably choose the technical means and the type of the database management system (DBMS) in the design of information systems.

The functions of the document are directly related to the information functions that the document takes upon itself after fixing this information on a tangible medium.

Document functions can be divided into general and specific, primary and secondary orders, explicit and hidden (latent).

The main functions of the document are:

- information (fixing and saving information);

- social (ensuring social needs, performing important public tasks);

- cultural (consolidation and transmission of cultural traditions);

- communicative (providing communication between individual elements of the social structure, people).

Specific document functions:

- legal (fixing and changing legal norms and legal relations in the society);

- management (ensuring the organization of the system and management processes);

- a function of a historical source (reflection of historical information about the development of society)

- cognitive (cognitive)

- hedonic.

Special functions of the document can also include statistical, confirmation of author's authority, etc.

The legal importance of the document is extremely important in management activities. The document serves as a basis for making managerial decisions, fixes decisions taken, confirms the fact of their implementation, is the source for generalizations and analysis of the results obtained. A document is considered both an object and a result of labor.

The legal function of a document is its necessary property, which, first of all, has documents fixing legal norms. But any management document carries this function, because it has a certain legal force.

The document captures information, gives it objectivity (legal force), thereby ensuring its preservation and accumulation, the possibility of transferring to another person in the management system, repeated use, repeated and repeated return to information in time. Thus, the most important function of any document is information.

The communicative function of a document is its ability to serve as a means of communication, communication between various officials, structural subdivisions, between state organizations, a managing and managed system, etc. The document has this function, since it serves as a means of transferring official management information both in time and space.

The cognitive function of a document is the ability to serve as a means of obtaining and transmitting knowledge for studying the processes and phenomena of nature and society.

The hedonic function of a document is related to its ability to serve as a means of recreation, entertainment, and the rational use of free time.

Thus, any document is polyfunctional. Documents act simultaneously as means and a way of realization of the functions assigned to the management apparatus, reflect all forms of administrative activity. As a data carrier, the document acts as an indispensable element of the internal organization of any institution, enterprise, firm, ensuring the interaction of their structural units and individual employees.

The development of information exchange, the allocation from the general information flow of the book as a vehicle of knowledge, and subsequently databases on the one hand, as well as documents as specific carriers of official management information, on the other hand, has a long historical path. Scientists believe that only about 100 thousand years ago, with the development of speech, it became possible to accumulate information in human memory.

Initially it was an individual process, i.e. each individual memorized information for himself, then passed on his knowledge to children, grandchildren, and students. This method of transfer was of a momentary (operational) nature, more serious information was forgotten, distorted, turned into epics and tales.

Collective memory of mankind gave rise to writing 5-6 thousand years ago. It was the written language that allowed to realize a complete set of information processing processes: collection, recording of information on material carriers, transmission and its preservation. All types of writing: text, digital, cartographic, technical graphics passed certain successive stages of their development, while they acquired a modern form.

It's interesting!

In some cases, excessive information, called information noise, benefits. And the need for redundancy is proved by evolutionary development, since almost all existing alphabets and languages ​​are redundant. For example, in United States the redundancy is 40% (according to other data - up to 60-70%), in French - 55%. Without some redundancy, a person is not able to perceive information for a long time. This would require constant intense attention from him and lead to rapid fatigue and loss of ability to perceive. In addition, language redundancy contributes to better memorization of information, in contrast to the semantic redundancy, which, on the contrary, prevents the understanding and memorization of information.

Document information is characterized by a number of important properties:

- availability, i.e. the possibility of obtaining by the consumer;

- protection from unauthorized access and changes, distortions from other persons

- ergonomics, i.e. Correspondence of volume of the information to the concrete consumer;

- certainty;

- novelty.

In addition to external properties, there are internal properties of document information. They find their expression in the amount of information, in its internal organization, structure.

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