Drawing up business letters
Business letters refer to the group of information documents and constitute the bulk of official documents used to document the activities of the organization.
Business letter is a generalized name for documents that are different in content, serving to communicate and transfer information between addressees in the business practice of organizations.
LETTER as the type of document is not allocated and therefore do not indicate in the header part of the document. Letters perform the following functions:
- are a means of communication;
- are a means of relaying information;
- are a notification of a fact.
The first letters in Russia - birch bark letters, as a rule, were very brief. The longest letters of honor are 166 and 176 words. But most often the letters are much shorter: most of the fully preserved letters are not longer than 20 words, only a few of them are longer than 50 words.
Most birch bark letters are private letters. They are devoted to the most diverse cases of current life - economic, family, money, trade, etc. To the category of private letters closely adjoining petitions (XIV-XV centuries) feudal lords from peasants.
Business letter is a kind of business card of the organization. By how correctly and aesthetically it is compiled and formalized judge the professional qualities of its employees and the organization as a whole.
Business letters can be classified according to the following characteristics:
by type: guarantee, instruction, accompanying, congratulatory, thank you letters, etc. The division of business letters by type is the key in their classification;
- by typification: typical, stencilled, individual;
- in the field of application: commercial, administrative, judicial, etc.;
- by structure: business letters can have a simple and complex structure;
- in place in the workflow: letters in relation to the organization are incoming or outgoing;
- in place in the process of correspondence: initiative, reciprocal;
- if necessary, continue the correspondence: business letters may require a response letter (letters of inquiry, letters of request) and do not require a response letter (letter of instruction);
- for the legal status of addressees: business letters can be from government agencies, organizations, citizens, etc.
- in the direction of the organization; letters can cover production, financial, consulting, project activities, etc.;
- by the method of sending: letters can be sent by postal, electronic (electronic message), telegraph (telegram), facsimile (fax), telephone (telegram), telex (telex) communication. Regardless of the method of sending, business letters are drawn up on special letterheads. The first page of the text is made out on the form, the remaining pages on the usual sheets of paper.
The main format paper used for letterhead is A4. The forms are produced by the printing method, by means of operative polygraphy or by means of computer facilities directly during the preparation of the document. The way the letterhead is made depends on the preferences of the organization, taking into account the requirements for the production of forms using the US emblem or the coats of arms of US subjects.
When preparing and processing a letter, the following details are used:
- the State Emblem of the United States;
- the emblem of the subject of the United States;
- the organization's logo or trademark (service mark);
is the organization code;
- the main state registration number (OGRN) of the legal entity;
- code of the document form;
- the name of the organization;
- reference information about the organization;
- the name of the document type;
is the date of the document;
- registration number of the document;
- a reference to the registration number and date of the document;
- the title to the text;
- the text of the document;
- a note about the presence of the application;
- print impression;
- a note about the performer.
The structure of the message text includes:
- information part;
- the final etiquette of courtesy.
Business letters should begin with a personal appeal to the addressee of the letter. The purpose of the appeal is to establish contact with the addressee, express respect, draw his attention to the letter. The most official character is the formula for applying for a position, it is used when referring to executives holding a high official position (President, Chairman, etc.):
Dear Mr. President! & quot ;;
Dear Mr. Chairman!
The official character is also addressed by the surname. Appeal by last name (without a name, patronymic or initials) is widely used in official correspondence, it is strictly official and indicates the presence of some distance between the addressee and the addressee of the letter:
Dear Mr. Antonov! & quot ;;
Dear Mrs. Belova!
The most common option that attests to business contacts is the treatment by name and patronymic:
Dear Sergey Ivanovich! "& quot ;;
Dear Irina Nikolaevna! "
When accessing a group of employees or in case of difficulty obtaining information about the organization's management, an appeal is used:
When referring to persons of one professional circle, an appeal is used:
Dear Branch Managers! & quot ;;
The information part of the letter uses the official-business style - a special kind of United States literary language, intended for communication in the field of administrative management.
In general, the message text consists of sentences grouped into paragraphs. Between paragraphs, there should be a clear semantic and stylistic relationship.
For the best perception of the letter, in general, there are dedicated to one question. Nevertheless, to illuminate its various aspects, as a rule, there is a need for additional structuring of the text. This structuring often involves dividing the text into three parts: introductory, main and final.
The introductory part of the text is intended to specify the essence of the issue, which served as a reason for writing. It can consist of one paragraph.
The main part of the text serves for a consistent and detailed description of various aspects of the issue. Depending on its complexity and novelty, the main part can include from one to three or more paragraphs.
The final part of the text usually consists of one paragraph containing the conclusions, as well as a request (requirement, indication) to the addressee and the nature of the author's expectations.
When composing texts of letters, the choice of specific language means is of great importance. The most common form of presentation in the letter is the use of the first person of the plural in the verbs denoting the key action of the text: "we guarantee payment", "we inform that ...", "please send ...", We suggest considering ... "," we direct to the conclusion ... "," we remind that ... " etc. When writing a letter on official forms, the form of the text of the letter from the 1st person singular is used, "I ask you to consider ...", "I consider it necessary ..." and others
In the practice of state bodies, letters begin with the name of the organization. "The Ministry of Agriculture of the United States suggests ...", "The Ministry of Culture of the United States requests ...".
Final etiquette formulas are linguistically stable phrases expressing hope for further cooperation, regret about the limited possibilities of the addressee, etc.:
We're sorry to not be able to use your suggestion & quot ;;
Looking forward to further cooperation.
The final form of courtesy may not be available in official letters, but almost always summarizes letters whose text is partly personal in nature (for example, letters of gratitude). The use of the final courtesy formula somewhat muffles the official tone at the end of the message.
The final form of courtesy precedes the signature and is located below the last line of the message text.
If the business letter begins with a request "Dear ..!", it should end with the final etiquette formula "Sincerely," which is printed 2-3 spacing below the text, with a paragraph:
The appeal and the final formulas of politeness make up the so-called etiquette frame. If there is no address in the letter, then the final formula "Respectfully" is also omitted.
The following standard formulations can also be used as the final courtesy formula:
Sincerely yours ... & quot ;;
Sincerely, ... & quot ;;
With deep reverence ... & quot ;;
With gratitude and respect ... & quot ;;
With appreciation and respect ... & quot ;;
Yours faithfully and best wishes ...
Let's consider the main types of letters that are most often encountered in business practice.
Letter of a message - a business letter informing you about any events and facts of mutual interest. A letter of communication can be proactive or a response to a letter of request. Proceeding from the specifics, letters-messages usually are of small volume and consist of one or two sentences. A letter-message can begin with a justification or directly from the presentation of the information reported. A message can be started directly with the word Report or one of its synonyms ("I send", "I send", "I represent"), and also:
We are reporting that ... & quot ;;
Please be advised that ... & quot ;;
We consider it necessary to inform you about ... & quot ;;
We're informing you that ... & quot ;;
Please note that ... & quot ;;
We inform you that ... & quot ;;
Let's inform you that ... & quot ;;
We consider it necessary to inform you that ... & quot ;;
We are writing to inform you that ... & quot ;;
We are pleased to inform you that ...
We are writing to inform you that ... & quot ;;
We are pleased to inform you that ... & quot ;;
In continuation of our ... we inform our ... "quot ;;
On the appeal ... we report ... & quot ;;
I consider it my duty to inform you that ... & quot ;;
Authorized to inform you that ... & quot ;;
Notification ... & quot ;;
Based on the above, we consider it necessary ... & quot ;;
It is established that in the period from ... to ... & quot ;;
We are reporting that as of ... and so on
A sample message-message is presented in Appendix 12.
Cover Letter is a business letter informing the addressee about sending documents (contracts, catalogs, registers, etc.) or material values attached to the letter. The direction of the cover letter is the rule of good form in the business practice of organizations and facilitates the accounting and further effective information and reference work with the documents sent.
The cover letter is started with standard phrases:
Directing ... & quot ;;
Presenting to you ... & quot ;;
Returning to you ... & quot ;;
We send you ...
These phrases can be preceded by introductory information accompanying this management situation:
In accordance with the agreement we direct you ... & quot ;;
In accordance with the schedule, we represent ... & quot ;;
In confirmation of our agreement, we send ... and others
1. Further, the text of the cover letter may contain requests related to the coordination, signing, return of the sent documents.
A distinctive feature of the cover letter is to mark the existence of an application below the text.
A sample cover letter is provided in Appendix 13.
Instruction (directive, circular) letter - business letter containing instructions (explanation) to subordinate organizations on issues of settlements, reporting, etc. This type of letters is sent by state, municipal bodies, as well as organizations that have subordinate organizations.
The instructions contain references to legislative and other normative legal acts, give recommendations and proposals regarding the implementation of certain actions.
In practice, in documents of this kind, the heads of organizations highlight the permissive instructions for any particular issue on the organization. Acquaintance with the instruction letters are subject to all employees of the organization whose activities concern this issue. All the instructions, fixed in the instruction letter, are binding on the part of the subordinates.
Instruction letters are signed by the head of the state (municipal) body or organization.
Instruction letters can begin with the justification of the purpose of the letter or the reference to the normative document - "For purposes ...", "In accordance with the ordinance ... No. ... of ...", and end with the phrase - On the execution of this circular letter, report ... ns later ...
A sample instruction letter is presented in Appendix 14.
Letter of Request - is a business letter, the purpose of which is to obtain official information, information, documents or initiate certain actions necessary for the author organization. A huge number of managerial situations give rise to the writing of letters-requests.
The request letter contains the rationale for the request and the statement of the request itself. The justification may contain references to legislative and other normative acts, organizational and legal documents. The rationale must precede the presentation of the request. The rationale may be absent in cases of obvious request, its typical nature, and also if the implementation of actions constituting the request is the responsibility of the organization, division, official. Often the request is stated with the help of the verb request :
Please report ... & quot ;;
Please pay ... & quot ;;
Please provide ... & quot ;;
Please provide details about ... & quot ;;
We would ask you to confirm ... & quot ;;
Please accept ... & quot ;;
We kindly ask you to repay the loan immediately ... & quot ;;
I ask you to send to my address ...
I ask you ... & quot ;;
Please make a payment ... & quot ;;
Please instruct me ... & quot ;;
Please consider ... & quot ;;
We ask you to find an opportunity ... & quot ;;
I inform you and ask ... & quot ;;
Please inform me ... & quot ;;
According to the preliminary agreement I ask you ... & quot ;;
Please assist in ... & quot ;;
I draw your attention and ask ... & quot ;;
Please take action on ... & quot ;;
In addition to ... please consider ... & quot ;;
Taking into account; what...; please ... & quot ;;
We ask you to find an opportunity ... & quot ;;
Please consider the issue of ... & quot ;;
I earnestly request that you confirm ... & quot ;;
In accordance with our agreement, please ... and the like.
The request can be formulated without the verb request & quot ;, for example: We hope for a positive solution of the question ... & quot ;;
We will be most grateful; if you send ... & quot ;;
We will be grateful; if you ... & quot ;;
Please let us know ... & quot ;;
It would be desirable to ... & quot ;;
We would be welcome ... & quot ;;
We would like to ... & quot ;;
Hopefully; that you will consider it possible to consider our appeal "; We are asking you ... & quot ;;
Let me ask you ... & quot ;;
We hereby inform you and ask you to immediately provide ... & quot ;; We will be grateful if you ... & quot ;;
We would appreciate it ... & quot ;;
We will be grateful for ... & quot ;;
We will be very ... & quot ;;
We hope that you will find it possible ... & quot ;;
We will be happy; if you ... & quot ;;
We are asking you to ... & quot ;;
It would be advisable to read ... & quot ;;
We would like to ... and the like.
One letter may contain several requests. In this case, the following language turns are used:
We also ask you to consider (grant, hold ...) & quot ;; Simultaneously ask you ...
Letters of request are signed by the head of the organization or officially authorized by the official. A request letter requires a response letter.
It should be noted that the request can be contained in other letters, for example, in the cover letter, guarantee letter, etc.
A sample request letter is provided in Appendix 15. Letter-Response is a business letter written as a response to a request letter. The answer can be positive or negative (rejection letter).
When writing response letters, the principle of linguistic parallelism should be observed: in the text of the letter of reply, the same language turns and vocabulary used by the author in the initiative letter should be used.
It's important to remember!
You should not include a link to the received letter in the text of the letter of reply ( On your letter from ... No. ... "). To refer to the received letter as a part of the requisites of the form there is a props "Reference to the date and number of the received document", where information about the initiative letter is also entered. The letter-response can be started with the words: "In response to your letter we inform you ...", "In response to your letter we inform ...".
Standard phrases used in response letters:
We're informing you ... & quot ;;
We are notifying you ... & quot ;;
We are informing you on your request ... & quot ;;
Unfortunately, we can not ... & quot ;;
To our great regret ... & quot ;;
To our mutual satisfaction ... & quot ;;
In accordance with your request, we direct ...
The standard text of a positive response letter might look like this:
A negative answer should be justified, one should not refuse a request without explanation. If the organization - the author of the letter has information about who, on what conditions, when he can give a positive response to this request, it is recommended to inform the addressee about this.
Standard Phrases Used in Failure Messages:
We regret to inform you that we will not be able to satisfy your request for the following reasons ... & quot ;;
In connection with ... our organization can not ...
A sample response letter is presented in Appendix 16.
Business communication does not allow rudeness and tactlessness and assumes a neutral tone of communication between partners. In this connection, it is recommended to avoid direct refusal in official letters.
A reminder letter is a letter that repeatedly informs about a fact, as well as used in cases when the counterparty organization does not carry out actions arising from its functional duties or accepted agreements.
The text of a reminder letter, as a rule, consists of two parts: a reference to a document in which the parties' obligations or circumstances are fixed, in connection with which the organization is obliged to take certain actions, and requests to perform ts or other actions.
The key phrase of the reminder letter is the verb Remind (remind) & quot ;.
Basic models and reminders:
In a letter from ... we informed you that ... & quot ;;
However, until now we have not received a response from you & quot ;;
Remembering this, please ... & quot ;;
If you do not receive a response in ... a time limit ... & quot ;;
We remind you that according to the plan of joint work ... & quot ;;
We offer you in accordance with the terms of the agreement ... & quot ;;
According to the agreement No. ... we remind of obligations ... & quot ;;
Despite repeated reminders ... & quot ;;
Urgently let us know the state of affairs & quot ;;
We are sending you again ... & quot ;;
We reiterate your notices ... & quot ;;
We kindly remind you ... & quot ;;
We earnestly request ... & quot ;;
Once again ... reminding ... & quot ;;
Otherwise, we will be forced to ... & quot ;;
We draw your attention to the fact that ... & quot ;;
Let's inform you that ...
A reminder letter may contain another additional part that mentions sanctions that will be applied in case of failure to perform the required actions:
If you fail to fulfill your obligations, you will be penalized and the like.
A sample reminder letter is shown in Appendix 17.
Letter of thanks (thank you note) - a business letter expressing gratitude for the actions (for receiving the letter, for presenting information, for inviting). Gratitude letters are less formalized than other types of letters and are made in a freer form.
The key phrases of the letter can be the following: Thank you for ... & quot ;;
We thank you for ... & quot ;;
We are grateful to you that ... & quot ;;
Thank you for ... & quot ;;
Expressing gratitude for your letter, we inform you that ... & quot ;;
We received an invitation for which you are very grateful & quot ;; Thank you in advance for ... & quot ;;
We acknowledge with gratitude ... & quot ;;
Thank you for your assistance in ... & quot ;;
We would like to express our gratitude for ... & quot ;;
Let me thank you for ... & quot ;;
Let me express my sincere gratitude ... & quot ;;
Thank you for your assistance in ... & quot ;;
We are grateful to you for ... & quot ;;
We received your invitation ... for which you are grateful ... & quot ;; "Referring to your letter, thank you for giving ...", "We express our deep gratitude for ...";
In this regard, I want to thank you ... & quot ;;
I wholeheartedly thank you ... & quot ;;
Expressing gratitude for ..., we are reporting that ... & quot ;;
Our sincere appreciation for ... & quot ;;
With a deep gratitude ... and so on
A sample gratitude letter is provided in Appendix 18.
Letter of confirmation - a business letter in which the addressee confirms receipt of information, documents or other materials, previously reached agreements, intentions, etc. When confirming the preliminary agreement in the text of the letter should briefly state its essence, when confirming the receipt of documents you must name them. In some cases, the confirmation letter summarizes the essence of the documents received.
The key linguistic formula of this kind of letters is the verb "I confirm".
Basic models and confirmation letters:
We confirm receipt of documents (preliminary agreement, consent, etc.) & quot ;;
We confirm the agreements reached at the talks ... & quot ;;
We confirm the intention ... & quot ;;
We acknowledge with gratitude the receipt of the materials ... and others
A confirmation letter may end with a request, a wish, a proposal.
A sample confirmation letter is presented in Appendix 19.
Letter of notification is a business letter informing about public events (meetings, seminars, exhibitions, conferences, etc.).
Letter-notifications, as a rule, are sent to a wide range of organizations, institutions, enterprises with the purpose of attracting them or inviting them to participate in ongoing events. Letters of notification can both inform about the event, the time and venue, both at the same time invite to participate, report on the conditions of participation in the event and contain other supporting information. Thus, the letter-notification can be simultaneously an invitation letter or be preceded by an invitation letter.
A notification letter can have applications that can contain an activity program, an application for participation, and other information materials. Such letters, as a rule, are sent to the list, so the props Addressee formalized or not formalized at all.
Signing letters are sent by the head of the organization or by the deputy head responsible for the organization and holding of the event, as well as by several managers, if the event is held jointly by several organizations.
A sample notification letter is presented in Appendix 20.
Letter of invitation - is a business letter that is a variation of a notification letter. The difference from the letter-notification is that it can be formed not on a blank, have a different format, color, additional design elements in the form of ornament, drawings, etc.
When inviting a large number of people, they use stencil, pre-made texts of invitations. As a rule, letters of invitation addressed to a particular person or persons, so they use the inversion formula to the destination Dear .. & quot ;, Dear .. & quot ;, for example:!!
Dear Mr. Stepanov! & quot ;;
Dear Alexander Nikolaevich! "& quot ;;
Dear Sirs, & quot ;;
Dear Branch Managers! and the like.
Letters of invitation can be sent by e-mail, but on special occasions, invitations should be sent by mail or by courier. The following expressions are used in invitation letters:
We invite you to participate in ... & quot ;;
Please participate in ... & quot ;;
We are honored to invite you ... & quot ;;
Accept our invitation ... & quot ;;
Allow me to invite (invite) ... & quot ;;
We would be happy to see you at ... & quot ;;
We would greatly appreciate your participation in ... & quot ;;
We would be grateful if you could accept our invitation to ... & quot ;;
We invite you to ... which will take place ... and the like.
The standard text of the invitation letter looks like this:
March 23-25, 2014 a scientific and practical conference "Education - New Times, New Approaches" will be held. Please confirm your participation in the conference and send the abstracts of the presentation in 3-5 sheets. Additional information will be sent to you after confirming your participation.
A sample invitation letter is presented in Appendix 21.
Reply to an invitation letter - a business letter expressing a positive or negative response. In case of a positive decision, the organization can immediately send an application for participation in the event. In case of a negative decision, it is necessary to indicate the reason for the refusal by starting the answer to the letter of invitation with the justification of the refusal: "In connection with ...".
A sample response to the invitation letter is provided in Appendix 22.Letter of congratulations (letter of congratulations) - a business letter drawn up on solemn occasions related to significant events in the position of an official or organization.
Letters of congratulations are made in free form, can be as small in size and include one or two sentences, and sufficiently developed. In the latter case, the congratulatory letter describes the main stages of life, the activities of the person to whom congratulations are addressed, his most important achievements. If the letter is addressed to the organization or its structural subdivision, it describes the most important and significant achievements of the organization or division.
In business practice, we can distinguish the following reasons for congratulations:
- anniversaries, birthdays of the receiving organization and the head of the organization;
- awarding, winning in competitions, winning in tenders
- successes in business and professional activity (appointment to a high position, assignment of an honorary or special title, opening of a new branch, etc.);
- public holidays (New Year, Christmas, Defender of the Fatherland Day, etc.);
- religious holidays (Christmas);
- pleasant events in your personal life (birthday, marriage, birth of a child);
- conclusion of mutually beneficial partnership agreements;
- anniversary of cooperation (usually first or round).
Letters of congratulations can be made out not only on the letterhead of the organization, but also on special paper of various colors, decorated with ornaments, having a high density, etc.
The following key phrases are used in greeting letters:
Congratulations on ... & quot ;;
Sincerely congratulate you on ... & quot ;;
Please accept our sincere congratulations on ... & quot ;;
We sincerely congratulate you on ... & quot ;;
Congratulations on ... & quot ;;
Please accept our sincere congratulations ... & quot ;;
Congratulations on your assignment to a new position & quot ;;
Congratulations on opening a new branch & quot ;;
We were happy to hear about your success in the elections. Congratulations on your victory! and the like.
Standard greeting message text might look like this:
Please accept our sincere congratulations on your election as Chairman of the Board of Directors. We wish you good health and success in your work. We are confident that your experience and high professionalism will serve to further the development of the company and to strengthen its positions in the field of high technologies. "
A sample congratulation letter is presented in Appendix 23.
Reply to a greeting letter - a letter that is written as a response to a congratulation on solemn occasions related to significant events in the position of an official or organization.
Standard response text to greeting letter:
Thank you for the attention you have given me on my birthday. Thank you for your kind and sincere words. For my part, I wish you great happiness and health, prosperity and prosperity. "
A sample response to the greeting letter is presented in Appendix 24.
In the guarantee letter, the author organization assumes certain obligations, so this letter has a legal burden. The text of the letter of guarantee contains a request for the performance of work, the provision of services, etc., and contains a legally significant phrase: "We guarantee the payment" etc. Further in the text of the letter are the bank details of the organization - the author of the guarantee letter.
Guarantee letters are signed by the director and chief accountant of the organization, the signatures are certified by the organization's main seal.
Important to know!
A distinctive feature of the guarantee letter is the presence of the requisite "name of the document type", which is not stamped on other types of letters. This props will look like this - GUARANTEE LETTER.
Basic models and designs of the guarantee letter:
Refund is guaranteed ... & quot ;;
We guarantee a refund of the loan in the amount of ... to ... & quot ;;
Payment is guaranteed. Our checking account ... & quot ;;
Providing living space is guaranteed ... & quot ;;
The enterprise warrants ... & quot ;;
We guarantee this letter ... & quot ;;
(Organization name) asks (you) to help ... (Organization name) guarantees ... & quot ;;
In order to provide assistance, provide ... (Organization name) guarantees ... & quot ;;
We guarantee that the equipment delivered under the above order, in all respects, corresponds to the description, specifications and specifications contained in the order & quot ;;
If, during ... from the date of commissioning, the equipment proves to be defective, we undertake to repair the defect at our own expense & quot ;;
If ... we undertake to replace defective equipment free of charge & quot ;;
We undertake to supply new equipment without delay & quot ;;
We undertake to pay the cost of transportation and insurance and so on
A sample of the guarantee letter is presented in Appendix 25.
Information letter - a business letter in which the addressee is informed of official information.
An information letter is close in meaning to a letter-message or an advertising letter, but is broader and more informative. Such a letter is the result of the logical development of correspondence. It is sent to the addressee if contact with him was established, and he does not object to the subsequent development of business relations. The newsletter is intended in a slightly larger volume than the message to inform the addressee of the author's desire to develop business contacts and of certain aspects of their implementation.
Information letters are useful in establishing an initial contact with the addressee, who is given a certain amount of additional information of a survey nature. The information letter may contain the motivation of the addressee to receive additional information by using the wording in the letter: "We will be happy to answer your questions."
A sample information letter is presented in Appendix 26.
Letter of Request is a business letter drawn up in cases where an organization wishes to participate in events or receive services provided by another organization. In commercial activities related to the provision of goods and services, the application can be used as the primary document, on the basis of which the order is processed and the contract is drawn up. A special kind of applications are documents submitted to the executive authorities and state organizations for the purpose of registering any rights, obtaining permits, etc.
The application can be made in a unified form or with the requirements formulated by the organization offering goods or services. In the first case, the preparation of such an application is to fill in the stencil form proposed by the seller organization. If the application is made in free form, it includes information that is essential to the author of the letter.
Since the application letter is, in fact, a request to perform any work, to provide services, to include an event in the participants, the text of the application usually uses the same language turns as in the request letters:
Please include in the group to participate in the ... & quot ;;
We ask you to provide for the participation of two representatives of our company in ... & quot ;;
Please register as members ... and the like.
Depending on the situation, additional information concerning the participants of the event, the subject of the application, the conditions of performance of work or participation in the events held, etc., is included in the text of the application letter. For example, if an application for participation in an event (seminar, conference, festival, fair, etc.) is drawn up, the following information is indicated:
is the name of the event;
- the date it was held;
- the form of participation (reporter, listener, participant, etc.);
- surname, name and patronymic of the participant (participants)
- place of work, position;
- a postal address with an index, a phone for communication, an e-mail address;
- the need for a hotel at the time of the event.
In the case when an application for the provision of a certain type of services is being prepared, all essential aspects of the subject matter of the application and all necessary information about the author of the application, other than those contained in the letterhead, are indicated.
The application can also contain a guarantee of payment for services or participation in the event in question.
A sample application letter is presented in Appendix 27.
Letter Supplement is a business letter sent after the main letter and containing additional information. A characteristic feature of such a letter is a direct indication that it serves as a continuation of the previous letter. It is from this that you should begin the letter-addition, for example:
In addition to writing ... & quot ;;
This email is an addition to ...
In the text of the add-on letter, it is necessary to explain what caused the need to send it, for example:
Due to a significant change in the cost of components to the product ... representing an immediate interest for your company ...
A sample attachment letter is presented in Appendix 28.
Letter of apology is a letter written on the occasion of an apology to the addressee for violations in business relations. Apology letters are rarely found in business correspondence. Nevertheless, in many cases they are irreplaceable for bringing formal apologies and normalizing relationships to the addressee, especially if it is not possible to apologize otherwise.
The standard wording for the beginning of apology letters: "I beg you to accept my apologies in connection with (for) ...". Apologies should be brought in the beginning of the letter and only then explain the reasons for their treatment. At the same time, it is not accepted twice to apologize in the course of the letter. It is better to express as sincerely and convincingly our regret in connection with the temporary violation of the relationship with the addressee. The general tone of the letter of apology should be emphasized conciliatory, but not crooked.
A sample apology letter is provided in Appendix 29.
A letter of condolence is a business letter written to express regret, sympathy and condolences. This type of letter is used in everyday business correspondence in connection with the death of people close to the addressee (relatives, colleagues).
In the case of less tragic events (natural disasters, major troubles in the activities of the organization), a written expression of sympathy and regret is used. These letters are designed to show friendly support in a business environment. It is permissible to resort to this form of written appeal in the event of a misunderstanding in the author's relationship with the addressee in case of disagreements that violate the usual order of business contacts. To start such letters follows precisely with words of condolence (sympathy, regret), for example: "I ask you to accept my condolences ..." or "I express to you my sincere sympathy ...". It is highly desirable that the general tone of such a letter be emphasized warm and leave room for a sense of hope and optimism.
A sample letter of condolence is presented in Appendix 30.
Letter of Recommendation - the form of the author's application before the addressee in favor of a third person who is not participating in the correspondence. Most often there are letters of recommendation issued by the organization to an employee in support of work experience in the organization, merits and personal qualities of the employee.
A typical wording for the beginning of a letter of recommendation is the following: "I have the honor to recommend to you this gentleman (mistress) for this letter ...". After that, the author draws the attention of the addressee to the motives of his address and sets out his own idea of the recommended person. The detailed recommendation can not be general, it should contain a description of the specific advantages (or disadvantages) of the recommended one with the aim of creating an objective impression of the person about this person.
A sample letter of recommendation is presented in Appendix 31.
The poet Sergei Esenin arrived in St. Petersburg on March 9, 1915. The first person he visited in the city was LL Blok. He gave him letters of recommendation, and Esenin's path to the literary circles was opened.
In business practice, you can distinguish a group of letters used in the conduct of commercial activities of organizations, the so-called commercial letters . This group includes the following types of letters.
Letter of inquiry is a business letter sent at the pre-contract stage by a potential buyer to a potential seller in order to obtain information on the possibility of supplying a shipment of goods under certain conditions or with a request to send an offer for the delivery of a certain consignment of goods (for the provision of certain types of services). A commercial request should be distinguished from an information letter and a request letter about the delivery conditions and the price of the goods. The request letter is also not considered an application or an order, which are other kinds of letters with other elements and requisites.
In a commercial request, the buyer is interested in the possibility of delivering a consignment of goods at certain times, under certain conditions, the issue of the price of supply may be raised. In the request, usually indicate: the name of goods (services) and the conditions on which it is desirable to receive the goods (quantity, quality of the goods, model, brand, price, delivery time, delivery conditions, etc.).
The terms of payment determine at what time and in what manner the buyer makes settlements with the seller. Terms of delivery determine where and at what time the responsibility for the safety of the goods and risks passes from the seller to the buyer.
In determining the terms of delivery in international trade terms are used that are contained in the commercial terms dictionary INCOTERMS ( International Commercial Terms, INCOTERMS), developed by the International Chamber of Commerce. The dictionary contains terms on the basic terms of supply, relating to the transportation process, registration of deliveries, etc., contained in international contracts of sale. The three-letter abbreviations of each term are standard and agreed with the appropriate bodies of the PLO. Since INCOMMERMS is an ever-improved set of terms, when used in contracts, an indication is required of the dictionary editorial.
Some terms from the dictionary are given below:
- FAS ( Free Alongside Ship) - freely alongside the ship to ... (port of shipment). The seller considers his obligations fulfilled when the goods are placed alongside the ship on the quay. From that moment the buyer must bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods. The term is used only for transportation by sea or river water transport;
- FOB ( Free on Board) - freely on board at ... (port of shipment). Responsibility and risks pass to the buyer from the moment of transfer of the goods through the ship's rail in the agreed port of shipment. The term is used only for transportation by sea or river water transport;
- CIF ( Cost Insurance Freight) - cost, insurance, freight paid to the port of destination. The term is used only for transportation by sea or river water transport;
- CIFC ( Cost Insurance Freight and Conihsion ) - CIF and Mediation Commission
- DAF ( Delivered At Frontier ) - delivery at the border. The seller is considered to have fulfilled his obligations to deliver the goods that have been cleared for export from the moment of transfer to the buyer at the agreed point on the border. The term can be used for any type of transport, but is mainly used for rail and road transport.
In a commercial query, the following expressions are used:
Please provide detailed information about ... & quot ;;
We ask you to inform about the possibility of delivery ... & quot ;;
Please make an offer for delivery ... and others
Standard text of the request letter:
Concern "VAMIT" specializes in researching wood drying technologies. In this regard, we are extremely interested in the acquisition and installation of drying chambers produced by United States enterprises. We ask you to send advertising brochures and information on the price of sets of standard projects of scientific and technical documentation for wood drying equipment. "
A sample request letter is presented in Appendix 32.
Reply to a request letter - a response letter from a potential seller of goods (services) to a potential buyer request for goods (services).
In the event that the seller is ready to fulfill all the conditions of the request, he can immediately send the offer for delivery. However, preparation of a quality proposal takes time, so it is recommended that you first agree in principle, and send the proposal with the following letter.
The response to a commercial request can be:
- offer letter (offer), if the seller can immediately satisfy the buyer's request;
- the letter informing about the goods (services), if the buyer requested the information about the goods;
- Refusal to review the request.
In the latter case, the ethics of business relations requires, first of all, to express gratitude for the order, then to explain the reasons why the order can not be accepted and executed, for example:
Thank you for your request for delivery ... Unfortunately, in connection with ... Your order ns can be accepted for consideration (executed) & quot ;;
Thank you for your request to supply ... Unfortunately, the product of interest to you can only be delivered on terms ... & quot ;;
Thank you for your request to supply ... Unfortunately, the product you are interested in can not be shipped earlier than ... Please provide your consent to change the delivery time.
Standard response text:
Having examined your request for the possibility of supplying 2000 ASUS VX239H monitors to Yekaterinburg in April 2014, "we confirm the readiness to deliver this product within the given time limits."
A sample response to the request letter is presented in Appendix 33.
Letter-proposal (presentation letter) is a business letter sent to a potential partner with the offer of goods, services, cooperation, etc. In commercial activity, such a proposal letter is called a commercial offer or an offer.
The offer can be:
- a written confirmation of the previously reached oral agreement;
- a response to a previously sent request letter;
- an independent proposal, which is an initiative document. In this case, it acts as a sales letter.
In the first two cases, the proposal is sent in response to the request letter or as a result of preliminary agreements, so it is not proactive. Accordingly, the first line of the letter indicates the motivation for sending the proposal.
There are many more mandatory elements in a business proposal than in a query. This includes data on packaging and labeling, quality, price of the goods, the price of supply, the value of the whole lot, and the terms of payment. It is possible to provide information on compensation of risks in force majeure circumstances and conditions on arbitration.
In commercial activity, offers (offers) are free and solid. Free is called a proposal, from the implementation of which the seller can refuse until the conclusion of the contract; it does not bind the seller with the obligation to sell the goods. Information on the free offer is given in the first line of the text (... we make you an offer without obligations on our part). A firm offer is firm, which the seller can not refuse to perform until a certain period.
A firm offer is sent to a specific buyer with an indication of the essential terms of delivery (quantity of goods, quality, price of the goods, etc.). A firm proposal binds the seller to sell the offered goods to the person to whom he offers it, so the mandatory element of the firm offer is an indication in the last line of the offer's validity, for example: "The offer is valid until ...". Failure to receive a response within the time limit is tantamount to refusing to accept the offer.
To create a quality letter-proposal, you need to navigate in the following terms:
- acceptance - acceptance of the offer on the terms of the seller;
- bulk - transportation of dimensional cargoes without packaging;
- in bulk - transportation of liquids in tanks or tankers without packaging;
- in bulk - transportation of bulk cargo without packaging.
The most common international terms that define
Terms of payment:
- ACC/ACC (ASSOUNT/ASSOUNT) - from account to account;
- B/S ( Bill For Collection) - a bill for collection;
- CBD (CASH BEFORE DELIVERY) - cash payment before goods delivery;
- CD (CASH AGAINST DOCUMENTS) - cash payment against documents;
- CIA (CASH IN ADVANCE) - prepayment in cash.
The offer to the partner contains specific detailed information,
since the next step may be the conclusion of a contract, or general information that is actually a proposal for the beginning of negotiations.
The structure of the offer can look like this:
Part 1. Introduction:
- the designation of the reason for the letter being compiled.
In this part of the message, phrases are used:
On your request, we inform you that ... & quot ;;
We are glad that you want to establish business contacts with us & quot ;;
We are pleased to send you the desired samples and suggest ... & quot ;;
Our representative, Mr. N, will inform us that you are interested in our products ... & quot ;;
According to your request ... & quot ;;
We confirm our agreement and we inform that we can deliver ... & quot ;;
Our business partners (N) have informed us that you are interested in including our products in your assortment ... & quot ;;
We are ready to supply you our products, and therefore we send our latest catalog for reference.
Part 2. Main part:
- the answer to the questions asked;
is the delivery of the meaning of the commercial offer (emphasis on the exclusivity of the product, if the producers of this product are small, the emphasis on the parameters, the differences of the product, if the producers of this product are many, emphasis on the features of the company and the provision of services, if the producers of this product are very many).
We are ready to make you a special offer & quot ;;
We suggest you ... & quot ;;
We suggest you firmly ... & quot ;;
In support of our agreement, we offer you ... & quot ;;
In the application, we direct you our catalog with the latest price list & quot ;;
Our detailed price list will convince you of the wealth of our assortment & quot ;;
Our offer is valid until ... & quot ;;
Prices include packaging and shipping costs; ";
We supply on terms ... & quot ;;
We are ready to give you a discount ... & quot ;;
Please tell us about consent to trial purchase for testing & quot ;;
Provided that raw material prices remain unchanged, .. & quot ;;
Our products are highly valued for ...
- additional suggestions (emphasis on a special attitude to the client).
To facilitate you the beginning of this new transaction, we will give you a discount ...% on our prices in the & quot ;;
The excellent quality of our products has gained a lot of attention to ourselves all over the world & quot ;;
I draw your attention especially to positions ... & quot ;;
For your purposes, the model is best suited ... & quot ;;
Items (goods) marked in the price list, I can recommend you especially, since they are made ... & quot ;;
You could profitably purchase a large batch ... & quot ;;
As you can see, our prices are competitive & quot ;;
We are confident that the quality of our products will meet all your expectations & quot ;;
"We give all our products to ... a year of guarantee";
Our products are carefully inspected to ensure quality & quot ;;
We would be happy to enter into business with you, and are confident that you will be able to successfully sell our products in your store & quot ;;
Your first order will convince you that we strive to fulfill all the wishes of the customer with the utmost care. "
Part 3. Final:
- expressing gratitude for attention and expressing hope for cooperation.
We would be very pleased to receive your order soon from you & quot ;;
If you have any questions about this, you can find us by the following phone numbers & quot ;;
If your offer does not suit us, we will be grateful to you for understanding us about the causes of & quot ;;
At your request, we will be happy to provide you with information about the terms of delivery and payment & quot ;;
We look forward to your order and promise a quick, accurate execution
Standard message text:
We bring to your attention a new catalog, which includes a complete range of furniture produced by our company. We also send a price list, which provides significant discounts for our regular customers. However, we can not save these discounts for a long time, so we recommend that you place your order within the current month.
A sample of the proposal letter is presented in Appendix 34.Reply to an offer letter - a response letter from a potential buyer of goods (services) to a potential seller of goods (services).
Business etiquette provides for a mandatory response to a proposal even if you can not accept it.
The response to the letter-proposal can be a letter confirming the acceptance of the proposal, or refusal. The buyer may not agree with only certain conditions of the offer, then he can send a counter offer to the seller, as a result, commercial correspondence arises, during which the parties either come to an agreement on all material terms of delivery or refuse to conclude a transaction. Depending on the situation, the following stable turns can be used in the reply to the proposal letter:
Thank you for the suggestion made and we are reporting on the willingness to enter into a deal on ... "
Accept your offer on ... & quot ;;
We confirm our willingness to conclude a deal on ... & quot ;;
Thank you for your suggestion, but at the moment we are not interested in purchasing this product.
The standard text of the response to the proposal letter:
Thank you for your suggestion in addition to supply current transformers for the integration of electrical control panels. However, we consider the price you named too high. In addition, payment terms, unfortunately, are unacceptable for us. We are ready to return to your proposals, if you find it possible to make the appropriate changes in them.
A sample of the response to the proposal letter is provided in Appendix 35.
Letter of Requirement is a business letter whose purpose is to induce a counterparty to fulfill its obligations in a situation where there are violations of previously accepted agreements.
Letter-requirements, as a rule, have a complex structure. They provide the terms of the agreements with reference to specific documents, outlines the essence of the current situation, formulates a requirement to fulfill obligations and indicates possible sanctions in case of failure to fulfill these obligations.
The key phrases in the letter-requirements can be:
Urgently demanding to execute (send, provide, list) ... & quot ;;
We demand that you fulfill your obligations ... & quot ;;
We require immediate execution ... and so on
Possible sanctions can be formulated as follows:
Otherwise, you will be penalized ... & quot ;;
Otherwise, the case will be referred to the Arbitration Court ";
Otherwise, we are not responsible for the consequences ... and the like.
A sample response to the letter of request is presented in Appendix 36.
Claim (letter of complaint) - a business letter that specifies the claims made by the claimant and the reasons for the claims. This type of letter, by appointment, is similar to a letter-request.
The claim letter (complaint) is preceded by the detection of a discrepancy between the quality of the goods or services provided by the contract.
The claim letter is drawn up on the letterhead. There are currently no regulatory requirements for filing claims at the level of legislation. But the practice developed the following recommendations for its compilation and design.
A claim letter may include the following information:
- the basis for making a claim (reference to a contract entered into between the parties, a letter of guarantee);
- the essence, the subject of the claim. It should be indicated which obligation is violated and to what extent (delay, improper quality, etc.);
- the validity of the claim (references to contracts, acts, etc.), evidence with reference to the normative documents that serve as the basis for satisfying the claim;
- material and other damages suffered by you;
- the actions of the partner for the claim; the specific requirements of the originator of the claim (termination of the contract, refund of money, the requirement to replace the defective product, etc.), indicating the terms of meeting these requirements;
- your actions if the claim is not satisfied. The letter should contain a warning about the subsequent appeal to the judiciary if the claim is not satisfied.
Each claim item is recommended to be issued in a separate paragraph.
For unambiguous identification of this type of letter, the type of letter on the document is allowed - CLAIM.
A claim (letter of complaint) must have a title to the text, reflecting its basic requirements, for example, "About payment of debts and penalties"; or contain a reference to a contract whose terms have been violated, for example, "About a claim under a lease from __________ No. ________."
The claim (complaint) letter should contain a note on the availability of the appendix, indicating all the attached documents confirming the validity of the claim. The letter sets the deadline for considering this claim, which, however, is not determined by law and in practice is one month. The form of the text should be as correct as possible to preserve business relations and the reputation of partners.
Claim letters, as a rule, are sent to the addressee by registered mail with a separate receipt and a notice of delivery. These documents are saved by the author of the claim for possible presentation to the judicial authorities.
When drafting a claim, the following phrases are used as the basis for making a claim:
Declare a complaint on ... & quot ;;
Sending a complaint to your address ... & quot ;;
Are forced to show you a complaint in connection with ... & quot ;;
We are sending you a claim on ... & quot ;;
We present you with a claim (complaint) in connection with ... & quot ;;
We send you an examination report from ... No. ..., from which it follows that ... & quot ;;
Our customer makes you a claim (claim) regarding quality ... & quot ;;
We officially declare you a complaint on ... & quot ;;
We file a claim for the quality of the products ... & quot ;;
Based on the commercial act, we make a claim to ... & quot ;;
In accordance with the contract ... You have violated the item No. ... & quot ;;
In a shipment of goods shipped ... a shortage was found ... & quot ;;
When accepting the goods received (date) on the consignment note number ..., a shortage was established ... & quot ;;
To our great regret, we inform you that ... & quot ;;
Unfortunately, we need to inform you ... & quot ;;
According to clause 4 of the contract you must supply us ... .
To phrases, phrases are used:
We intend to require from your side ... & quot ;;
We have an intention to ask you ... & quot ;;
In accordance with the above, we ask you ... & quot ;;
In connection with the above, you are fined for ...
To express the content of sanctions, the following expressions are used:
"In case of evasion from taking measures to resolve the issues reflected in the complaint, the case will be referred to the Arbitration Court ...";
... otherwise, you will be penalized & quot ;;
In case of refusal to comply with the claims stated in the complaint ... & quot ;;
Refusal to perform obligations but the contract in connection with the claimed complaint ...
The sample of the claim (complaint) letter is presented in Appendix 37.
The organization must respond to a claim (complaint) letter within a specified time. During this time, it is necessary to inform the counterparty in writing about the rejection of the claim or its acceptance for consideration. In case the claim is accepted for consideration, the deadline for making a decision on the claim or specific measures for its satisfaction shall be reported. In case of rejection of the claim, the reasons for the refusal are indicated with reference to documents that can justify it.
Advertising letter is a business letter that offers products or services that stimulate interest in the product and desire to purchase it.
Conditionally, advertising letters can be divided into two groups:
- Letters that offer products or services;
- Presentation letters containing information about the organization.
In addition to these varieties, in advertisements are widely used information letters, pamphlets, bulletins, whose task is to provide detailed, sometimes detailed, information about goods and services. These materials are not advertising letters, but together with them perform an advertising function. Advertising materials are usually provided at the request of the interested party, which received the primary information about the organization or product from an advertising letter or in some other way.
When composing advertising letters, the following rules should be observed:
- the advertising letter should not be long and not more than one page;
- the advertising letter should be concise, clear, informative; you should not describe in detail the organization and the products or services offered, but it is necessary to emphasize only the difference between your organization and others, your goods from the goods of other suppliers;
- it is not appropriate to exaggerate the merits of your organization, since any information can always be checked;
- Do not impose the proposed goods or services; repeated repetition of the proposal, albeit in different versions, may alienate the correspondent;
- an advertising letter represents your company, firm, therefore it should be issued on the form with all necessary for the letter requisites.
In case the letter advertises goods or services, its structure can be as follows:
1. Address to the addressee ( Dear Sirs! or Dear colleagues! ").
2. A brief overview of the organization and the nature of its activities.
3. Presentation of the product (goods) and listing of its main advantages.
4. List additional or related conditions.
5. A concrete proposal for cooperation (wholesale or retail trade, supply of services, etc.).
6. Express the willingness to provide samples of the product, detailed information about the product or services and answer all questions that may arise from the potential consumer.
7. A standard phrase with an expression of hope for cooperation.
8. Signature (position, surname, initials).
If the letter represents an organization, its structure might look like this:
1. Address to the addressee ( Dear Sirs! or Dear colleagues! ").
2. A brief overview of the organization and the nature of its activities.
3. Description of the main activities of the organization, its advantages in comparison with other organizations offering similar goods or services.
4. A concrete proposal for cooperation.
5. Expression of willingness to provide any interesting information about the organization and answer all questions.
6. A standard phrase with an expression of hope for cooperation.
In order to have a stronger impact on a potential partner, it is necessary that a letter advertising products and services be signed at least by the unit manager, and letters representing the organization, by the organization's head or his deputy.
When you write advertising letters, you need to adhere to the general rules for writing business letters, but to draw attention to the letter it is permissible to use a wider range of text design, such as highlighting the most important fragments of the text.
A sample of the sales letter is presented in Appendix 38.
So, modern management requires from each manager and leader the ability to write business texts of a very different orientation. This can be as the compilation of commercial letters and business proposals, and the formulation of congratulatory letters and thanks. From the writing of some of these documents, the success of all managerial and commercial activities will directly depend. In this regard, practical written skills in developing business letters, regardless of the thematic focus of the text, are required in everyday work by almost any specialist, including managers of all levels, department heads, advertising specialists, personal assistant managers, and all office workers.
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