Functional-style and stylistic characteristics of...

Functional-style and stylistic characteristics of the United States vocabulary

The functioning of the United States literary language is connected with the social spheres of life: industry, science, politics, everyday life, etc. Language ties with social spheres determine the social orientation of the language, which is embodied in three types of communicative situations: communication, communication and impact. Situations of communication and impact are usually associated with the book's speech, the situation of communication - with a colloquial speech. Accordingly, the language distinguishes between book and colloquial styles. Style - a language subsystem that has its own lexico-phraseological features, specific morphological forms and syntactic structures. The style is characterized by its own style - the organization of expressive and evaluative means. Therefore, style and stylistic closely interact. The style characterizes the belonging of the word to the book or colloquial subsystem (consolation is bookish, high.), Stylistic - to the qualitative component of the book or colloquial subsystem (dirty - raz., Disapproving. ).

A stylistic value (connotation) reflects the qualification of an object, attribute, process, which is fixed in the semantics of the word in the form of a meaningful, emotional, evaluative and expressive components of meaning.

A meaningful connotation is an additional semantic consciousness, which, as a rule, is not registered by dictionaries, but empirically known to all native speakers. This, for example, Sema 'clumsiness' in the characterization

the words bear (animal) or seme 'cowardice' in the meaning of the word hare (animal). Only in some cases, consciousness is included in the vocabulary definition; cf .: twist 'dexterously get out of a fix' - dexterously 'dodgy, cunningly'.

Emotional and evaluative connotations are associated with the expression of a relation to the reality of feelings, volitional promptings, sensual or intellectual comparisons: a house, a nag, a stylist, a pretty one. Appraisal expresses an opinion on the value, meaning of someone ('good/bad'); emotionality represents the positive/negative of a particular feeling. Appraisal and emotionality are not opposed components of the meaning of the word: emotions reveal the "specifics" evaluation. Positive evaluation will be transmitted through a positive emotion: affection, praise, ecstasy, approval, etc. Negative assessment is associated with negative emotions: condemnation, rejection, disapproval, contempt, irony, etc. For example: house (diminutive), daughter (diminutive), nag (negligible).

The expressive component captures and preserves in semantics the expressively expressive property of the word - a figurative reflection of the fact of reality; cf .: the slider 'child who can not walk', hummocky 'uneven', bang 'hit'.

The distinction between book and colloquial vocabulary is associated with the presence of interstyle (neutral) vocabulary. Interstyle vocabulary includes common words that are not fixed in any of the styles: house, knife, wooden, green, run, sleep, good, bad, and, but, on, by. Neutral vocabulary is the basis of functional-style differentiation of words, by comparison with it, the word's belonging to one or another style is determined. Interstyle words do not have connotations; their use creates the necessary neutrality of the presentation, against which stand the stylistic and stylistic characteristics of other words. Being used in any functional style of the language, in written and oral speech, interstyle vocabulary ensures the unity of the United States literary language as a system. At the same time, some polysemantic words in some meanings appear as neutral, and in others as fixed for a certain style of language. Cf. the meaning of the word brother : 'neutr. each of the sons in relation to other children of these parents',' books , is high, every person united with those who speak common interests ( brothers in the spirit) '.

The book style of the language includes three sub-styles: scientific, official-business and journalistic - and, accordingly,

combines scientific, formal-business and journalistic vocabulary.

Scientific vocabulary serves the sphere of science and is characterized by a kind of impersonal information about nature, man and society. Style-distinguishing features of scientific vocabulary are: the terminology of the word semantics, the systematics of scientific concepts, the logisation of the meaning of the scientific concept, the absence of emotionally expressive connotations and words of a conversational nature. The scientific vocabulary includes:

1) terminology as a paradigm of the branches of specialized knowledge: the exchange rate of the fin. the selling price of the securities, the mark of the fin . old monetary unit of Germany and Finland ', bonuses' fin . credit documents giving the right to receive a sum of money ';

2) abstract names that call abstract concepts: analogy , being, capacity, hypothesis , binomial, classify, condition, believe, realize ;

3) modal words expressing the authenticity/unreliability of the message: certainly, probably, probably undoubtedly,

4) words that define the order the presentation of thoughts: first, secondly, in addition, in this way , etc.

The official business vocabulary has the following distinctive features: clearly expressed socio-functional orientation, relative style closeness, standardization and unification of names, the presence of functional connotations and the prevalence of language cliches. As part of the official vocabulary, a large number of thematic paradigms are singled out, calling different spheres of business life: the administrative district, the region, the governor, the mayor, the official documentary { {passport, residence permit, decision, contract ), diplomatic {ambassador, visa, note, summit), office and business {statement, report, above, outgoing), legal {will , gift, plaintiff) , etc. Functional connotations of this layer of vocabulary - 'specialized', 'unified', 'official'.

The official and business specialization of common vocabulary is determined by the sphere of its application in public life: bazaar - book, vegetable, New Year's, High Contracting Parties ; business - commercial, legal, person - physical, legal, dummy.

Publicistic vocabulary is used by the mass media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, etc.) to speak on current socio-political issues, issues of current life. Styling characteristics of this vocabulary are:

1) a clear orientation of the semantics of the word: economy, budget, issue, genre school, musical, cabbage, leader of the movement, rating , etc .;

2) the informative precision of the word and at the same time the figurativeness and glossiness of the word (expressive-activity functions of the word): shamans and politicians, oil, gas, forest ... women, sick with socialism ; non-jubilee reflections ;

3) the use of words with connotative semantics, including the personal component of the meaning: is in the shadow ('tries to be invisible') tax ', honest (' openly reproduced ') copies of pictures, tides ('successes and failures') performance',

4) The absence of style closure of the word: unanimity, scale, scrupulousness', military, conspiracy, embellishment,

5) a certain stampability of the word: a complex of guilt, a deadlock, political games, a rally by competitors.

A special place in the language of fiction is poetic vocabulary. Traditionally these are words that have linguistic, systemic connotations "high", "lyrical" and "solemn": "Face, gaze, divine, pogratitsya", the Muses blessed you, with wreaths over autumn, when you, friends, were distinguished by an honorable cup me (P.). But in a broad sense, the poetic word is a verbal and artistic creation. It includes in its semantics the textual increment of meaning-new content components, expression, emotionality, appreciation-all that creates the art of the word: "I remember the pale-modest evening" ("inexpressibly simple"), > flowers of tired ('tired') dahlia ... (Br.); The artist showed us a deep faint ('complete disconnection') lilacs (Mand.); The water was lilac, so soft and warm ('gentle, causing an internal pleasant sensation') (Ch.). Metaphors-impersonations allow us to express the deep intimacy of feelings, the subtlety and softness of the emotional beginning, i.е. text stylistic increments of meaning.

Conversational style prevails in oral speech, depending on the situation and therefore being direct and unprepared. Speaking vocabulary is characterized by stylistic marking (marking) of the broad semantic spectrum, as well as expressive and emotional evaluations. Used mainly in the sphere of oral communication, spoken vocabulary has the character of ease, diminished and familiarity. In the composition of colloquial vocabulary, there are usually two groups:

1) literary-spoken vocabulary used in a variety of spheres of people's communication: hold 'delay, slow the performance of smth. up to smth. time ', to throw ' carelessly throwing, randomly stacking in large quantities. ', debtor ' he who has debt, debt ';

2) conversational and everyday vocabulary used in everyday life: cleanly 'completely, completely, without a trace', be serious 'assume importance, take an impressive look, to stay arrogant, daughter 'in the treatment of an elderly or an adult person to a young woman, girl, girl. "

Speaking vocabulary is rich in expressive and emotionally-priced connotations (bran, joke, iron, lac., family, etc.): modern (approved or disapproved), swallow (in the value of the call - diminutive.), Carapace (joke).

Spoken vocabulary is outside the literary language and is used for a reduced, rough and/or rough estimate. Spontaneous words have expressive-stylistic connotations (coarse, bran, neglected, etc.): crocheting (simple, neglected), henchman (simple, contemptuous .), net ('lazy, loafer' - simple, joking).

The periphery of vernacularity is made up of vulgarisms - abusive and socially obscene words: bitch , bitch , creature , sublug Stibrate , etc.

Spoken vocabulary is used, in contrast to the dialectal (regional), in the speech of the whole people. Therefore, there are discrepancies in the style qualification of the word. Cf. in different explanatory dictionaries: itch 'itching, itching' - simple, and razg .; really - razg., and in the meaning 'in fact, really' - razg. and simple.

Vagueness as an emotionally colored way of depicting reality is part of artistic speech and is associated with a functionally expressive differentiation in the naming of a particular phenomenon. The word with a penny is "simple." often found in the synonymous series: eat , harpy (simple.) ...; drink, lap (simple) ...


Thus, a word in a language has its own semantic a re eal - the semantic realities and possibilities that, over the centuries, have developed human cognition. This area is replenished with text acquisitions that enter the word into the sphere of art.

thematic pictures

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