Grammatical categories of pronouns, The problem of pronouns...

Grammatical Pronouns

According to grammatical properties, pronoun words are usually divided into three categories.

Subject pronouns (pronouns): who, what, I, we, you, you, he, she, it, they, yourself, nobody, nothing, someone, something, someone who either, someone, someone, something, anything, something, somebody, and also everything (Everything will pass), all, then, this is on a partial value are close to nouns, since they indicate the objectness. In the sentence, these pronouns perform the same functions as nouns - are subject or complement: I loved you ... (P.).

Characteristic pronouns (pronoun adjectives): my, your, our, your, its, its, their, your, this, that, such, such, such, such, this, this, this, which, whose, who , what, what, himself, most , all, every, every, every, any, other, other, some, some, some, some, some, some,, some , etc. - are not grammatically opposed to the adjective. They have a partial meaning of the feature of the subject, without naming this attribute directly, but pointing to it (answer the question "what?"); are consistent with nouns in gender, number, case and animate/inanimate (my home,

my country, my Motherland, such a city , such cities; I see this table , but this horse); in the sentence are the definition or the nominal part of the compound predicate (This is the letter - your).

Quantitative pronouns (pronominal numerals): how many, many, many, some, as already noted (see the section "Numeral name"), according to grammatical properties are not opposed to numerals.

In addition, pronominal words are established within the framework of such parts of speech as adverbs (compare the pronounced adverbs where , where, how, why , etc.) impersonally-predicative words (cf .: What is he now ?) and even a verb. Many scientists (in particular, MV Panov) believe that the interrogative turns used in the practice of grammatical analysis are "what should I do?" and what should I do? Petya (what does?) draws] are nothing more than pronominal verbs.

The problem of pronouns as a special part of speech

Given the obvious grammatical heterogeneity of pronouns, FF Fortunatov, LM Peshkovsky, L. V. Shcherba and many other scientists came to the conclusion that pronouns generally do not constitute a special part of speech and are distributed among other parts of the speech - the name noun, the name of the adjective and the name of the numerals. In turn, LL Shakhmatov, LA Bulakhovsky, AN Gvozdev, and others continued to relate all words with deictic, anaphoric, and quantifier semantic functions (except, of course, pronouns of adverbs, verbs, etc.) to one part of speech - the pronoun [the same view is reflected in the academic "Grammar of the United States language" (1952-1954) and in most school textbooks].

Vinogradov's point of view, strictly grounded in scientific terms, is of interest. Unlike scientists who do not consider the pronoun part of speech, and from scientists who call grammatically different words with pronoun semantics, Vinogradov argued that in United States there is a special part of speech - a pronoun, but it does not include all words with a pronoun meaning, but only pronouns of the same name (Vinogradov's terminology is subject-personal pronouns).

Although the subject-personal pronouns have the same fictitious meaning as nouns ('objectness'), but they differ from morphological properties from nouns:

1. Subject-personal pronouns have a morphological category of a face that is not present in nouns. This non-inclusive (classification) category manifests itself in the compatibility with the personal forms of the verb, i.e. syntagmatically. Wed: I go, we go ( 1st person); you go, you go (2nd person); all other subject-personal pronouns are combined with the verb forms of the third person.

2. In nouns, the genus is often expressed by endings ( table-o, wall-a, window-o ); the subject-personal pronouns - only syntagmatically, in the forms of the agreed words [you told (m.)); you read (w.); Who came? (m. p.); What happened? (Wed). The exception is the pronouns it , it , it, in which the genus is expressed by the endings of the pronouns themselves.

3. The number of nouns is a word-changing category: when the noun changes according to the numbers {table - tables), its lexical value does not change. Many subject-personal pronouns {who, what, nobody, something , etc.) do not change at all in numbers. Only for some pronouns is the opposition of the singular and the plural {we - we; you you; he, she, they are they). However, here the ratio of the singular and the plural is usually different than in the contrasts of the type table - tables. If tables means' many objects called the word table then we does not mean 'much me', but you does not mean 'much you'. We are it's 'I + you', 'I + you', 'I + they', but not 'I + I'. Therefore, many scientists believe that i and we are these are not forms of one word, but different words, each with its own lexical meaning. Similarly, the pronouns you and you are related. The word they also does not always mean a lot of homogeneous objects; this form can mean not only 'he + he' or 'she + she', but also 'he + she'. Consequently, the category of the number of subject-personal pronouns is not inflectional, but classification.

As far as the category of animate/inanimate is concerned, it does not fundamentally differ from the pronouns of the same category of nouns. This is a classification category: each of the subject-personal pronouns refers either to the class of animate (B. = R: I, you, he, who), or to a class of inanimate (V. = I.: what, this, everything in the objective meaning, etc.).

The inflectional category of case is also comparable with the corresponding category of nouns. The differences are as follows:

1) the pronouns do not form additional case forms (partitive and "countable" forms of the genitive case, the local prepositional case) that are characteristic of the declension of certain categories of nouns;

2) when pronouns are pronounced, suppletivism is extremely developed (I - me - me, you - you - you ; we-pass ), including the use of different bases in the non-prepositional and prepositional use of the case form [its a-its) - in the ( and-it ); them-them) - with [imi]].

So, subject-personal pronouns, or pronominal nouns, are characterized, in contrast to nouns, not by four, but by five morphological categories, of which four categories (face, genus, animate/inanimateness, number) are not inflectional, but a case is the only inflexible category. There is no such system of morphological categories in any part of speech, including the noun. Therefore Vinogradov also singled out pronominal nouns as a special part of speech, calling it a pronoun (in the narrow sense).

As for other types of pronoun words, they differ sharply in their grammatical properties from subject-personal ones and refer either to adjectives (pronouns , , whose , every , etc.), or to numerals (indefinite-quantitative pronouns how many, several , as many , etc.). Vinogradov's point of view was reflected in many authoritative works, including the academic "United States Grammar" (1980).

Declination of Pronouns

The pronounced adjectives tend to be ordinary adjectives (which is as old, which is as factory).

Pronounced numerals tend to follow the pattern of collective numeral [how many (compare five), how many (compare three), how many (cf. three)].

The most varied declension of subject-personal pronouns. Declination of personal pronouns i, you and return self (not having the nominative case, since it is always an addition) is similar to different substantive declensions:

In the personal pronouns we, you the inflectional paradigm is: I. we, you; R. us, you; D. us, you; V. us, you; T. us, you; II. (o) us, you (it is necessary to pay attention to the unique ending -as in the forms of the genitive, accusative and prepositional cases).

Personal pronouns he, she, it, they, questioners who, what, undetermined someone, anything , etc. , the determinative all in the objective meaning 3а everything, for all you I thank (L)], the indicative then, this also in the objective meaning [ That was in the early spring (LK T.)] when forming forms of indirect cases use the endings of various declensions of adjectives ( it - compare blue, with them - compare with blue, who - avg sea; tu - cf dad). Only three forms do not have a match in declination adjectives: P. and B. of she - her {her}; T. from who, what, everything, then - by whom, than, by that, all; cf. end of adjectives: blue , rich. The paradigms of declination of these pronouns are:

The pronouns he, she, it, they form the forms of indirect cases with the use of different bases - depending on the prepositional/non-prepositional use of the pronoun {/ - it, but for its -s).

The indefinite pronoun somebody has only the nominative case. In the sentence, it is always subject to: Someone came or the nominal part of the compound predicate: It was someone Sidorov.

The indefinite pronoun something has forms only of a nominative and accusative trust: Something happened (im.) important; We heard something (v. And.) interesting.

Negative pronouns there is no one, nothing, like return self, are used only in forms of indirect cases.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)