Grammatical meaning of the word, Formal grammatical means - Modern US language

The grammatical meaning of the word

The lexical meaning of a word is accompanied by its grammatical meaning. The differences between these two types of values ​​are:

1. Grammatical meanings are abstract, therefore they characterize large classes of words. For example, the meaning of the verb form is always present in the semantic structure of the United States verb. The lexical meaning is more specific than the grammatical meaning, therefore it characterizes only a certain word. Thus, the lexical meaning of the word table 'is a piece of furniture in the form of a wide horizontal plate on the legs, legs' - this is the semantic property of this specific word.

2. Lexical meaning is expressed by the basis of the word, grammatical meaning by special formal indicators (therefore grammatical meanings are often called formal).

So, the grammatical meaning is an abstract (abstract) language meaning expressed by formal grammatical means. The word usually has several grammatical meanings. For example, the noun by the teacher in the sentence And the one , whom I consider to be the teacher , as the shadow passed ... (Ahm. ) expresses grammatical meanings of objectivity, animate, masculine gender, singular, instrumental case. The most common and most important grammatical meaning of a word is called partial (or general categorical); such are the meanings of objectivity in the noun, the process of verb, etc. The fiducial meaning of the word is supplemented and concretized by private (or partial) grammatical meanings; Thus, for a noun, the particular categorical grammatical meanings of animate/inanimate, gender, number and case are characteristic.

Formal grammatical means

We characterize two types of formal grammatical means - paradigmatic and syntagmatic. Morphological (inflectional) paradigm of a word is a collection of all grammatical varieties (word forms) of a given word. The ability of a word to form a paradigm is called a word change. Some words do not have a change of word: they always appear in the same form (such, for example, are the auxiliary words y, , only). Such words have a zero paradigm. In most of the words of the United States language, the paradigm is not zero. Thus, the morphological inflectional paradigm of the word school is formed by word forms: school , schools , school , school , school , (o) school ; schools , schools , schools , schools , schools.

Word forms are of two types: synthetic (simple) and analytical (composite). Synthetic word forms consist of the basis of the word and inflectional affixes - endings,

inflectional suffixes and postfixes. For example: house-o (zero ending), schools-a ; (fast inflectional suffix of the superlative degree and the ending), chit-n-i <(i) (verb inflectional suffix and ending), run-by-ut (the inflectional suffix of the sacrament and the ending). In one synthetic wordform there can be from one to three inflectional affixes; for example, in the verb form check-n'-i-cb (The essays were checked by two examiners) grammatical meanings are expressed by the inflectional suffix of the past tense with the ending and and the inflectional postfix of the passive voice -s.

In the formation of analytical word forms, auxiliary words that play the same role as the inflectional affixes in the structure of synthetic word forms are involved. For example, by adding the future tense form of the auxiliary verb to to the infinitive of the imperfective verb ( read , run , etc.), an analytical form of the future tense > {I will read , will run ); adding to the past tense form of the auxiliary word would form a subjunctive mood (would read , would run).

Sometimes in a word paradigm there are both synthetic and analytical word forms (cf. strongest and strongest ; warmer and more warm). In the paradigms of nouns, numerals and pronouns - only synthetic word forms; for adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and impersonally-predicative words, both synthetic and analytical word forms are characteristic.

Reversal has always been the main object of morphological analysis, because endings and inflectional suffixes in the composition of synthetic word forms, auxiliary words in the composition of analytical word forms are effective means of expressing grammatical meanings. So, due to the contrast of the endings in the word forms pupil-pupils , journal-logs , the values ​​of the number are expressed; in contrasting the word forms solved - I decide - I will decide the time values ​​are expressed.

The selective affixes of all the above types and auxiliary words refer to the paradigmatic means of expressing the grammatical meaning of a word (as they participate in the formation of the inflexible word paradigm). In addition to the basic paradigmatic means, in some words there are additional grammatical meanings that often accompany basic means:

1) alternating (or alternating) phonemes in the basis [run - run ; dream - sleep ( fluent vowel)];

2) the accretion, truncation or alternation of the fundamental-forming suffixes in the basis [brother - brothers (brother-a); peasant - peasants ?; give - give a dance - dance (dance-y ') - y)]

3) suppletivism - the alternation of the roots (I go - went, man - people )

4) changing the stress place (tree - trees ; was - were).

The grammatical meanings of words are expressed not only paradigmatically, but also syntagmatically; in the phrase. For example, in the word combinations new book , new books , the value of the number is expressed not only by the ending of the noun, but also by the end of the adjective matching it. Here the paradigmatic and syntagmatic means of expressing grammatical meanings complement one another. And in those cases when the paradigmatic means of expressing grammatical meaning are absent, the only formal means of detecting this value is the grammatical syntagmatics (compatibility) of the word. For example, if a noun does not have externally different endings, i. E. is non-inducing (type coat , CHP), the grammatical value of a number can only be expressed by outside of (new/new coats, powerful/powerful CHP). These examples show that morphology as a grammatical doctrine of a word actually functioning in speech should take into account all means of expressing grammatical word meanings, both paradigmatic and syntagmatic.

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