With the help of the question, the speaker seeks to obtain new information about something, confirmation or denial of any assumption. The interrogative sentence serves to express the question addressed to the interlocutor. Such a sentence has its own grammatical form, which is represented by intonation, interrogative words, in particular interrogative particles, and on the letter is indicated by a question mark.
For interrogative intonation, there is a more or less significant increase in tone at the end of the sentence, which is especially noticeable when compared with narrative sentences; cf .: The brother has arrived. "Has your brother come?" I have to
return. - I have to come back? An essential feature of interrogative intonation is an increase in the tone of the word, in which the essence of the question is, the selection of this word; cf .: The father will come T this train? - Will the father come by this T by train? - Father T will come by this train?
Not every sentence, questionable in form, contains a question. Therefore, the interrogative sentences on the purposefulness of the utterance are divided into actual interrogative sentences and proposals that do not contain a question but have a question form, which, in turn, can be divided into four groups: question-rhetorical, interrogative, interrogative, -Confirmative.
In the actual interrogative sentences there is a question addressed to the interlocutor and requiring a response, suggesting an answer. With the help of the question, the speaker seeks to learn something unknown. By way of expressing the question, these sentences can be divided into not pronouns and pronouns.The non-queried interrogative propositions presuppose an affirmative negative answer, which is most briefly expressed not by sentence sentences Yes and No. The speaker, asking the question, only waits for confirmation/then the alleged: The hunter, in the dim sunset light, read my friend's note and said : Are you a writer? - Yes (Paust.); Is it coal? - I turned to the escort. No (A.S.). The interrogative meaning is expressed mainly by intonation, and the word (or group of words) is highlighted, in which the essence of the question is: Smiling, she asked : You loved her very much ? - Yes (MG); "Have you read Kuprin?" Asked the editor. Read (Paust.). The distinguished word can be rendered at the beginning or end of the sentence in order to emphasize its meaning: "I strongly changed since then?" - Strongly (Ch); So you, Fedotka Demidych, are coming out of business - shaky? (Sh.)
In addition to intonation, interrogative particles can be used, whether , is not , really ( really , already , already). The particle does has clean value of interrogation: And what else did you call? Serpilin asked incredulously. "Called, called", - Maximov laughed (Sim.). Particles do not they really, , except for interrogative significance, express surprise, doubt, etc., bring in the sentence a shade of uncertainty in the positive response: "... excuse me! But should I fall in love with you? - Yes, a cheeky person! " (M.G.)
Pronounced interrogative sentences require a detailed answer. They include question words - pronouns and pronominal adverbs: that , who. which, whose, which, how much, where, where, whence , when, why, why , etc. The answer should contain new information about objects, signs , circumstances: The boys sat a little still and again pushed each other. "Where did you come from?" - - "With the settlement". - With what settlement? - With Zhukovsky. This in the forest. " "How many yards do you have in the settlements?" - Two Courtyards and there is & quot ;. - L where are you going? - Yes to you (Paust.).
Interrogative rhetorical proposals require and do not require an answer. They express different feelings and experiences of the speaker - meditation, doubt, sadness, regret, sadness, joy, anger, etc.: Where , where did you leave, my golden days spring? What does the future prepare for me? (I.); Work? For what? To be full? & lt; ... & gt; The man is above satiety! .. (MG) Interrogative rhetorical sentences are found mainly in works of art and create emotionally colored, agitated that narrative.
Interrogative sentences are used to express motivation. In them there is no actually interrogative value. The speaker does not intend to get new information, but encourages the interlocutor to do something or invites to do something together: Sinits to catch go , uncle? (MG); How long will I wait for you until you get together? Seroshtan begins to be angry (Купр.); Will you shut up non? " Asked Nagulnov (Sh.). Motivation is often accompanied by shades of vexation, impatience. Therefore, interrogative and motivational sentences are emotional, expressive, and can be used instead of motivational ones; cf .: Let's go. - Come on! - Will you go?
Interrogative-negative sentences have the same form as the actual interrogative ones. They use interrogative pronouns, adverbs, particles, but these sentences do not have interrogative value, but contain a message. Although they do not have special negative words, they express the impossibility of any action, state, the inability to attribute to the object any sign: What kind of hunter are you? You in the kitchen on the stove to lie down and cockroaches to press, and not foxes to poison (Ch.); What is better than a songbird in the world? (M.G., cf .: Pet is nothing in the world better than a songbird!) ', "Where to go now! She said and stood up. [/ From here you can not break out.) Interrogative-negative sentences express various modal shades (impossibility, inexpediency, etc.) with the help of so-called question words (they do not contain a question here) and intonation, which differs from the actual interrogative by a smaller increase in tone at the end. Interrogative Words also pronounced differently, with a strong emphasis, a special timbre. Interrogative-negative sentences are used to express refusal, negative response: We began to persuade him to come to Moscow, so that one of the major Moscow singers and professors of the conservatory would listen to his voice. "Yes that you! - he said. - What kind of opera with my amateur voice! " (Ilayer)
Interrogative-affirmative sentences have interrogative particles, pronouns, adverbs in combination with a negative particle not. However, this particle in these sentences expresses a negation. On the contrary, the sentences with the combinations do not, who does not, where not, what not, to whom not , etc. express an assertion colored by the modal values of inevitability, obligation, certainty, etc .: in the same one, will not it get tired? Why do you have to complain to your wife? (TV.) [Cf .: It is tied up in that one (she), of course, will get tired] 'Who in childhood did not besiege the ancient castles? ( Paust: cf .: Everyone in the childhood besieged ancient castles).
Interrogative words and particles can be combined with the verb no ; this construction also has an affirmative meaning: They went, filled the white light - to live with nothing to the family. Brelley - and where we just do not exist, Frolov, on the ground! (Tv, cf .: Interrogative-affirmative sentences are emotional, expressive, they are used in literary texts to express the strengthened statement: Ah! Sophia! Mulchalin was elected to her! And than not the husband? The mind in it is only a little ', but to have children, who lacked intelligence? (Gr.)
Narrative, motivational and interrogative sentences can have an emotional coloring, i.e. express the attitude of the speaker. If emotionality is transmitted through intonation or special service words, then such a sentence is an exclamation.
With the help of exclamation intonation feelings of joy, admiration, anger, fear, contempt, surprise, etc. can be transmitted. For example: Ah, how bitter you are, until the end, later, youth, is needed! (TV.) - sentence on the purpose of the utterance
narrative, it contains a message, and with the help of exclamation intonation, as well as interjection, a feeling of bitterness, regret is expressed; Well, Tanya, speak! (MG) - an incentive suggestion, emotional by intonation - exclamation, impatience, annoyance are expressed in it; You of what , - he screams evil and rude , - what are you, a girl , grit your teeth? (MG) - the sentence expresses a question with an emotional assessment (rage, anger). In exclamatory sentences, emotionality will also be created with the help of exclamation particles like, what, what, that, that's the same, well and others: How dear to me in the native people is the youthful reason that always called him to freedom, to a dream, living from time to time! (TV)
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