LEXICOGRAPHY - Modern US language


Lexicography (& lt; - related to the word - I write) is a section of linguistics that deals with the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries. The volume, nature and aspect of the presentation of information determine the type of dictionary - encyclopedic or linguistic.

Encyclopaedic dictionary (encyclopedia) is a scientific reference edition in the form of a dictionary, where in alphabetical order basic information on all branches of knowledge is presented. The encyclopedia contains the names of outstanding people, names of countries, cities, rivers, terminology of science, art, etc.

A linguistic dictionary is a scientific reference book, where words (all parts of speech) and stable combinations of words with their interpretation, accent, grammatical, stylistic, stylistic and other special linguistic marks are placed in alphabetical order.

According to the type of information that is contained in the linguistic dictionary, the explanatory dictionaries and the aspect dictionaries differ. Special aspects of the word paradigmatics (dictionaries synonymic, antonymic, etc.), its grammatical properties (dictionaries grammatical, morphemic, word-formative, correctness of speech, word compatibility, etc.) are placed in the vocabulary of the dictionary, the history of the word (dictionaries etymological, historical, etc.), the rules of spelling and pronunciation of the word (orthographic dictionaries, orthoepicheskie), the spread of the word in a certain territory (dictionaries), etc.

The explanatory dictionary contains general epistemological (cognitive) and linguistic information about the word, mainly in the form of everyday concepts and (rarely) short scientific concepts. Depending on the amount of information reported in the dictionary, single-volume and multi-volume dictionaries are compiled. Normative information about the modern United States word is placed in the four most complete and authoritative explanatory dictionaries.

One-volume Dictionary of United States SI Ozhegova (1949, abbreviated - SO) interprets about 50 100 words. One-volume Dictionary of the United States language SI Ozhegova and N. Yu. Shvedova, who supplemented and revised the dictionary of SI Ozhegov (1993, abbreviated - SOSH), includes 72500 words and 7,500 stable combinations of words.

The four-volume United States Explanatory Dictionary Ed. DN Ushakov (1935-1940, reissued in 1947-1948, abbreviated - TU) interprets 85289 words. This dictionary served as a normative sample in the system of selection of words and their stylistic and grammatical description.

17-volume "Dictionary of the modern United States literary language" [1950-1965; abbreviated - BAS (Big Academic Dictionary) or SSRLYA], encyclopedic in terms of volume, nature and type of interpretation of information, included 120480 words - vocabulary from Pushkin to the present day.

The four-volume Dictionary of the United States language Ed. A. II. Evgenieva [1957-1961; 3rd ed., 1985-1988; abbreviated - MAC (Small Academic Dictionary) or SRJ] fixes the vocabulary from Pushkin to the present day, but to a lesser extent than the SSRLIA, - about 90,000 words.

The explanatory dictionary consists of alphabetical dictionary entries in which the headword is placed and below which the most commonly used derivative words are fixed (to reduce the volume of the dictionary).

A dictionary entry is a brief linguistic information about a word, its lexicographic description.

Structural components are highlighted in the article:

1) the headword;

2) interpretation of the word: a) a system of grammatical, stylistic and stylistic litter; b) definition (definition) of lexical meaning; c) illustrative material as a means of semantification (confirmation of the interpretation of the word);

3) phraseological units according to the supporting component for them - the title word of the article;

4) derived words.

For example, a dictionary entry from the school:

LOB. forehead, forehead, forehead, m. Upper facial part of the skull. High l. (large) ... O In the forehead - 1) from the front, to the front part of the city; 2) at point-blank, without blushing ( raz .) // decrease forehead, -a, m. // adj. Frontal, -th,

Different types of explanatory dictionaries use different in character and volume of the definitions and that characterize the usual meaning of the word, its representation in a generalized form. As a result, semantic disagreements between the dictionary definition and the actualized word are inevitable. For example: starch - 'cooked from starch'. Starch paste. The judge should have eaten only buckwheat from buckwheat groats and starch jelly (G.) - here the utterance (combination of words) starch paste confirms the definition, but the example from the literature does not match it, since in combination starch jelly there is a value 'containing starch', and the word has a wider meaning than the definition.

There are three main types of definitions used in the explanatory dictionaries of the modern United States language: descriptive, synonymous and referential (derivational). Descriptive definition determines the meaning of the word by pointing to the object of reality, which is revealed by the introduction of the generic concept (hypersem) and a set of differential signs (species concepts - hyposem). The linguistic definition sometimes includes elements of an encyclopedic description. For example: a rose is a shrub plant of the Rosaceae family with large fragrant flowers of red, pink, white or yellow tones and with stems usually covered with spines [hyposema]. Cf. Definition with encyclopedic components: mustard - 'herbaceous plant of the family of cruciferous [hyposema] with yellow flowers [hypersemia], the seeds of which are used in the food industry, medicine [hyposems of encyclopaedic significance]',

Definitions of terms reproduce the specialized knowledge of science, in contrast to the definitions of the rest of the vocabulary, which reproduce the object of description. By and here the definition includes two parts - generic concepts and differential (species) characteristics. For example: Catholicism is one of the main (along with Orthodoxy and Protestantism) directions in Christianity [a hypersem of a religious sense] with its ecclesiastical hierarchical organization headed by the Pope [hyposems of similar semantics].

Synonymic is a definition that reveals the meaning of a word through identical or similar words. Synonymic interpretation can be introduced with a special indication: the same as ... For example: loose - 'not resilient, excessively plump, flabby': aviator - 'same as pilot'.

The reference (derivational) definition contains a characteristic of the categorical affiliation of a word and preserves the motivating and motivated connexions of meanings. For example: gun - 'related to rifles'; paint - * speed action but 1st value. Ch. paint ; handsome - 'simple, caressing, handsome.

Does not find in the explanatory dictionaries full reflection of the lexical and semantic compatibility (syntagmatics) of the word. For example, with the general value of 'brown-yellow', the words brown, brown and chestnut differ in their lexical compatibility: brown suit, sofa, briefcase, but brown eyes, coloring suit (about the horse) and chestnut hair. Or: the semantics of the words have 'eat food' and drink to swallow in smth. quantity of liquid 'determines their semantic compatibility: eat, drink broth (' decoction of meat '), but is , * drink borsch (' soup with beets and other vegetables'), i.e. there are semantic limitations in the connections of words. It is necessary to distinguish the meaning and use of the word. The meaning of a word is the system correlation of a word with a certain concept, socially assigned to its sounding (graphic expression). The use of a word is either a "trace of past uses of a word that did not create a particular meaning, or a new application of one of the meanings of a word ... in a peculiar situation, with a new imaginative orientation" . In dictionaries, the use of a word is usually indicated behind a vertical line. For example: thing - 'every single item (mainly household, labor, etc.) | usually pl. h. (things, -yey). About dress, clothes, small things of personal use.

In lexicology and lexicography, the traditional notion of the "connotation of the meaning of the word" is used. The shade of meaning is an incidental, collateral meaning of the word, existing next to the main one. In explanatory dictionaries, the tint of the value is indicated either after two parallel vertical dashes, or after a semicolon. For example: debut - 'the first performances of the artist on stage || first public speech on smth. field '; friendly - 'based on friendship; mutually benevolent (about peoples, states, relations between them). "

In dictionaries, there are often discrepancies in the registration of word form variations. Wed: whitish (SRY), whitish and whitish , whitish (SOSH). Lexicographical differences are explained by the development of the linguistic norm, leading to the obsolescence of certain variants recorded by dictionaries published at different times, as well as by the position of the compiler of the dictionary entry.

In lexicographic practice, the functioning of a word in a certain style (stylistic litter) and stylistic

The value (semantic-stylistic litter) is either represented in a hierarchical gradation, where the stylistic is a kind of stylistic ( boobies - raz., disdained), or recorded as bookish, written and obsolete, - a kind of book ( perceive - book, obsolete).

For the book style, explanatory dictionaries, as a rule, in addition to the functional litter of a generic character, give litters of a specific character: indisputability (book), pet (bookish), the message (book, official), outgoing (official-affairs). As syncretistic stylistic stylistic litters of the book style in dictionaries are used litters high and "popular-poetic": "retribution" (bookish, high.), well done (nar-noet.). The words of the journalistic lining ( humanism , democracy , publicity , etc.) ns receive lexicographical litter.

The terminology associated with the vocabulary of the scientific sub-stratum has a "special" or industry litters: hazel (special), lin (special), gamma (music), gamma rays (phys.), armor (ist.), oregano (bot.).

Stylistic counseling (emotional-expressive meaning) is recorded in dictionaries with numerous litters: abusive, ironic, petting, disapproving, scornful, disparaging, diminutive, ; pejorative & quot ;, playful and the like: abdomen (diminutive), gikat (disapproving), soulful (iron.), scribble (contempt), versatility (approved). Syncretic (combined) litters are possible: mistress (pejorative and lask), rasstraga (contempt and iron).

The words of the colloquial style and the versicles have a generic litter: rascal (razg.), tablet (razg.), grumble (razg.) , unforgivable (simple), cursive (simple), say (simple).

In some explanatory dictionaries and dictionaries (phraseological fusion and unity) and phraseological combinations are recorded differently. So, in SRY and SDH, idioms are placed after the 0 badge; idioms are distinguished by the ~ (tilde) sign, and the phraseological combinations are fixed after the & lt; & gt; sign.

In the explanatory dictionaries there is noted mainly the style marking of the phraseological units of the book and the colloquial character: alpha and omega (book), from aza to izhitsy (bookish), climb for trouble ( (simple.), burst my eyes (simple). In addition, the following stylistic litters are used: "abusive", "ironic", "petting", "disapproving", "deferential", "scornful", "diminutive", "pejorative", " playful and others: history with geography (joking), carry water with a sieve (iron), ink soul (neglected - about a bureaucrat) , went to hell (bran.).

There are also possible syncretic stylistic litters: a well of wisdom (joke, iron.).

There is also a field of special application of phraseological units - "medicine", "physics", "sport", "botany" and others: dark water (honey.), heavy water (fiz.), giant steps (sport.), deaf nettle (bot.).

All dictionaries, both sensible and aspect, teach correct use of words, observance of the norms of the modern United States language.

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