Methods of studying phonetics, Sound division of speech - Modern US language

Methods of studying phonetics

The sound structure of a language can be studied in many ways. You can listen to your speech and the speech of others, comparing sounds and establishing their differences. You can analyze your muscular feeling and determine the ways of sound formation. These are methods of direct observation and introspection. Many linguists have come to important discoveries in this way.

With the development of technology, the widespread use of instrumental methods of studying phonetics. With the help of sound recording equipment speech can be fixed and reproduced. Sounding speech can be seen on the computer screen in the form of a spectrogram, an oscillogram, a pythonogram, an envelope of intensity. So the sounds are studied from the acoustic point of view. One can study articulation, i.e. movement and position of the organs of speech when pronouncing sounds. Filming, for example, helps to establish the movement of the lips. Photographing after pronouncing different sounds, the tongue and palate, lubricated with a special composition, determine the area of ​​the tongue and palate closing. Profiles of the organs of speech in the articulation of isolated sounds are obtained on X-ray images and tomograms. To study the flow of speech used kinorentgen.

There are pronouncing variants in the literary language: for example, in the word yeast the hissing sound is pronounced softly and firmly. How do you know how widespread this or that pronunciation is, what sections of the population use this or that option? This study deals with socio-phonetics. The survey is conducted using questionnaires, questionnaires: "How do you pronounce the alphabetic combination чн in the following words (underline): bakery or immovable , bribe taker or bribe taker, stag, or mustard?> & "Do you say the same words ( dense)> forests and {red >) fox ? Yes. No. (Underline the required.) etc. Data obtained with the help of questionnaires give an idea of ​​how certain groups of the population, differing in age, profession, place of residence, etc., speak.

Audio Voice Division

Our speech is a stream of sounds, a sound chain. This chain is divided into segments - speech units, allocated by different phonetic means. In United States, such units are phrase, phonetic syntagma, phonetic word, syllable and sound.

A phrase is a segment of speech combined with a special intonation and phrasal accent and concluded between two rather long pauses. For example, the sound chain Was windy, damp and nasty. || The door to the garden was opened , || The puddles of the night rain (L.T.) are paused by three pauses on the blackened floor from the phlegm from the phlegm (the borders between the phrases are denoted by two vertical lines). The phrase corresponds to a sentence that is relatively complete in meaning. However, the phrase can not be identified with the sentence. The phrase is a phonetic unit, and the sentence is a grammatical one, they refer to different levels of the language. They may not coincide linearly. So, in the example given, in one complex sentence there are two phrases. One complex sentence can correspond to one phrase: He wanted to say something to him, but the fat man had already disappeared (G.); She does not take her eyes off the road, that she's going through the road (Gonch.).

The phrase can be divided into phonetic syntagmas. The phonetic syntagma is also characterized by a special intonation and syntagmatic stress, but pauses between syntagmas are not necessary, and they are shorter than interphrasal pauses. For example, the phrase Was windy, damp and bad consists of three phonetic syntagmas (the boundaries between them are denoted by one vertical line).

The division of the speech stream into phrases and syntagmas is conditioned by the meaning, the meaning, which the speaker puts into the utterance. The presence of hues of the value is reflected by the permissible fluctuations in the separation of the speech stream. Thus, there are possible variants of the division of the phrase into phonetic syntagmas; Wed: The next day the news of the fire spread all around the neighborhood. (P.) - Next day | the news of the fire spread all over the neighborhood. - Next day | the news of the fire spread all over the neighborhood. In some cases, the options for the division of the phrase into phonetic syntagmas reflect different meanings; cf .: We must learn , | Work and rest. - You must learn to work and relax ; How scared her | words of the brother. - How frightened her brother's words.

Phonetic syntagmas consisting of more than one word are characterized by semantic and syntactic integrity. Therefore, it is impossible, for example, to divide into syntagmas: to | Another day or for another day.

So, the phrase and the phonetic syntagma are distinguished by rhythmic-intonation means, the division of the speech flow into phrases and syntagmas is related to the meaning and syntactic division.

A phonetic syntagma can consist of one or more phonetic words. The phonetic word is a segment of the sound chain, united by one verbal accent. A phonetic word can correspond to one or more lexical words. So, in the phrase That very night a broad boat sailed from the hotel ... (T.) Three phonetic syntagmas, each with two phonetic words (combinations of words in the same , from the guest form one phonetic word). The phonetic word is divided into syllables, and syllables are divided into sounds.

Different linear segments of the speech stream are called segment units and. Sound is the smallest segment unit. Each next largest unit segment consists of smaller ones: the syllable is from the sounds, the phonetic word is from the syllables, the phonetic syntagma is from the words, the phrase is from the bars.

The combination of segmented units into larger segment units is due to superegmental (or prosodic) units, which, as it were, are superimposed on segmented ones. Such super-segmental units include: syllabism/incongruity of sounds, stress and intonation.

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