In compound sentences, opposites, incompatibilities are expressed; their grammatical form is created by unions a, but, yes, however, the same. The main, dominant are unions a with comparative semantics and but with the value of the opposition. All other adversative unions have limited use because of stylistic (yes - archaism, conversationality, , same - bookishness) or semantic hues.
All proposals with opposing unions have a closed structure: People crossed flooded places without much difficulty , horses same again got (Ar.); The river was still flowing in the province , but was quietly under the bridge (TV).
The opposite can be emphasized by means of particles, lexical repetitions with negation, antonymic lexicon, etc.: Rare lights are lit on the farm , and Natalia was not there (III.); The generals lay down to sleep again , yes they can not sleep on an empty stomach (C-1C.); The candles were still burning, but morning light (Ch.); The steppe has long ago been left behind, , and the local mountains have already loomed up (M.-C.); > > > > >
The general meaning of the opposite is manifested in two types of relations: juxtaposition and opposition. Comparison is expressed by unions and,. They emphasize the difference of signs, actions attributed to different persons or objects, as well as spatial, temporal, etc. differences: After lunch Zhenya read , lying in a deep armchair , and I was sitting on the bottom step of the terrace (Ch. ). The main thing is the union a. Union same is used in a limited way: it has a stylistic connotation of bookishness. In addition, the union is not located between the predicative parts, but within the second predicative part, after the word in which the basis of the comparison is expressed: Learning and lunch made the days very interesting , evenings same passed boringly (C) - cf .: and evenings ...
Opposing is expressed by unions, but, however, , yes, a. Only. They indicate the opposite of the content of the second predicative part expected from the meaning of the first part, i.e. on their incompatibility. The main thing is the union but ("pure opposition"): The clouds became thinner and more transparent , but The whole sky was encased by them (MG); The pale sky began to turn blue again - but it was already the blue of the night (T.). All
other unions have some differences and limitations (however tends toward the bookish style; yes - to the colloquial; but brings a shade of " refunds "; a , only express a partial, incomplete opposition): Bright luxury of southern nature touched the old man , by but much admired Sergey , was here for the first time (Kurp.); Good United States deletion , yes a little to her face (T.); Until the evening there was no more than half an hour , and dawn was barely lit (T.); Then it became quiet , only sounds from the yard (Ch.). In all cases, an alliance but can be used as the bearer of the semantics of opposition.
In compound sentences, the relations of mutual exclusion, alternative, choice are expressed. The structure of such proposals is unclosed.
The semantics of the separating unions used are not uniform. Unions either, or express the actual alternative, choice; they are used both as single and as repeating: Only the old willows , or > will rarely rustle and wither away unknown above whose house (Paust.); Do not want to think about anything , or thoughts and memories wander , cloudy , unclear , as a dream (LS); We talked for a long time and were silent for a long time , thinking about my own , or she played me on the piano (h).
The interrelationships are expressed by the union then ... then which is used only as a repeating: That the truth breathes in it all Y then everything in her is pretended and false (L.).
Repeating alliances either ... either, not that ... not then express the relationship n e r a r z l y e n i: < I've lost my ability to get along with people in those three years, not that people have become more scandalous during this time > (M.G.).
In the sentence sentence, the meanings of grammatical equivalence and additionality are combined: the first part is semantically complete, autonomous, and the second - formulates the statement "about" the first: In the woods it was fun , and used to such a life of Glitter (M.-C.).
The indicators of accession are as special connecting unions (and, moreover, moreover, and, besides, not that, not that , etc.) and sometimes in combination with the lexical units of the connecting semantics (and moreover , too , also , but also others): Kashtapka ran back and forth and did not find the owner , but between those things it became dark (Ch.); Arina Petrovna remained as before in Golovlyov , and , of course , was not without a family comedy (S.-Shch.); The meadows behind the Volga turned to brown , to the city too all colors faded (MG). The value of the addition is expressed together with the connecting, adversative, etc.
The inclusion of concluding sentences in compound ones is not entirely indisputable, since they do not show the value of equivalence, analogy, which is characteristic for the work. The attached second part in some respects "serves", explains the first: I did not want to go home , and there was no need to go there (Ч.).
Suggestions for a more complex structure
The minimum composition of a compound sentence is determined by the content of the relations between its parts. In this case, one relationship determines a closed structure (juxtaposition, opposition, alternative), others - open (enumeration, alternation, non-distinction). In both cases, there are elementary compound sentences.
If the composition is formed by unions of different semantics, i.e. differentiated by the content of the relationship, and the number of predicative units is more than two, then we are dealing with a complicated structure: It rained , and from the strong wind the trees rustled , but there was no rain, , no trees (Ch.); Cocks were not singing yet , and dogs had already stopped battling , and In the hut with the edge of the village through the cracks of the shutter yellow light (A. T.).
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