In the first two parts of the textbook, we were able to make sure that the academic (or scientific) text is based on the author's own idea, which he formulates as a thesis and proves on the basis of his own knowledge using support from relevant sources. In Part II, we went through the process of generating ideas, comprehending the topic and developing principles that allow us to keep the focus of the text throughout the entire writing process, from the beginning to the end of the work on its content.

In Part III, we will work on how to organize all this knowledge and all the necessary material into the text as a product. In fact, the nonlinear process of producing ideas we will have to learn to turn into linearly written text that will be read non-linearly.


The practice of non-linear text organization: from method to technology

Logical organization of the text

Let's sum up what we already know about the logic of text construction.

First, through familiarity with the basic model of building an essay (Part I, Figure 1.3), we know that the text should have an introduction and conclusion that keep the structure of the text and its focus, and that the paragraphs of the main part set out the key ideas of the text in the same sequence as the introduction, and the conclusion.

Secondly, due to familiarity with the organization of the writing process (Part II, Figure 2.1), we know the importance of the introduction, why it is written after the main part, and how it is related to the conclusion through the thesis.

Thirdly, we know that a text is an intellectual action, and it is based on a central procedure that allows us to conduct reasoning or proof from the thesis to the conclusion through the whole text, keeping the focus of the research and not deviating from it.

Finally, we know that the argumentation is based on the author's knowledge, but is supported by facts or information from other sources that are carefully selected and entered into the text in appropriate places accordingly. Thus, we know a lot about the methods of constructing the text.

In terms of the engineering metaphor, we made calculations, acquired the necessary materials, armed with tools and can safely proceed to construction. It's time to mark the construction site and proceed to the stage-by-stage assembly of the elements. To do this, we must, first, keep our building in mind before our eyes as a whole, although so far a virtual product, and act according to the instructions, ie. from the place where we stopped in part I. Hence, we must develop the proper structure of the text , organize and write the main part , and then the introduction and conclusion. This is our program of action at this stage.

The key moment for us is the development of the proper structure. At first glance it seems that we already have a certain principle of logical ordering of the text - the main procedure. If we take

procedure as a basis, we can outline the logical order of the text, for example, in the following way:


Boolean order (method of organizing text)

Tracking (to present the main stages)

Chronological: in time or in a sequence of events or stages

Study (divided into parts and critically discuss each part)

Hierarchical: from the most important to the secondary

Overview (provide key features)

Classification: group ideas and organize them logically

Comparison, comparison or opposition

Comparative-comparative: sequentially by characteristics or blocks

Analysis (divided into components, structured)

Deductive: from the general to the particular

Proof (convince by argument)

Causal: From the least important to the most important

Description (present in detail)

In order of location, size or shape of objects

Academic writing textbooks often suggest using a logical order, which corresponds to the nature of the content of the text. There is even an established classification of essays based on the connection of content and logical order:

- an essay describing the process (chronological order);

- an essay that reveals the causes and consequences (cause-and-effect order);

- an essay comparing or opposing objects (comparatively-comparative order);

- an essay-proof (logical separation of ideas).

These types of essays are used to prepare for writing short academic texts in the format of international examinations (UK) and TOER (USA). This approach is focused on a quick and compact effect and a no less rapid and compact assessment of the readiness for training in a university.

Our textbook is addressed to those who are already studying at the university, so even when writing short texts, we will focus on rhetoric and composition more than on academic writing. By the way, the brevity of the text not only does not simplify, but often complicates the task. Write a short scientific text, for example, an abstract or a scientific article with a limited format, can be very difficult. However, we know that if there is a thesis and focus, then the size of the text is no longer a problem. The problem is to organize the content.

You can imagine the arrangement of paragraphs in the text on the basis of a procedure or a logical order, but only in the most general terms. For example, by comparing two objects in a comparatively comparative order, one can describe the advantages and disadvantages of one, and then the other, blocks or compare them for each of the characteristics. In this case, it is still necessary to first isolate these characteristics, group them into a visible amount (if not in a triad, then at least five) and order them again, but of importance or from more general to more private. If, for example, two events are compared, then the causal logic can enter into this order: what led to the first event, and what - the second, which led to the consequences of the first and the second. And if there are three compared events? And if everyone has his own chronology?

In addition, every argument, as we know from the methods of Dunn's argumentation, is based on our own support. Knowledge of the methods of argumentation and ways of using the sources that we have come to know in the chapter "Its and others'. Argumentation and use of sources will help us to substantiate every argument, but the question of how to order the text as a whole will still remain open.

So, what we do not know yet is not about methods, but technologies for organizing text and writing each of its elements. This is a lot, since the idea and planning of the text before its implementation is as far away as from the plan of the building's plan to the completion of its construction. In order to build something integral, we must constantly keep this integrity in our head, but to build this holistic we need step by step, element by element.

From thesis to structure: building text in 3D

We have seen above that the relationship between opinion and fact is the difference between subjective and objective, modal and real. If the opinion is a thesis, then the relationship between the thesis and the fact is much more complicated, because they are connected by a whole text, and the text is a logically ordered and organized system of proof.

The fact in itself is not the basis of the proof. It can only support the argument , i.e. the rationale behind your idea. For example, in order to justify the approval of the MS Office Software is convenient for the user & quot ;, you can bring arguments such as It is easy to install and It's just in application & quot ;. And the argument can and should be justified by facts. For example, the It's easy to install is confirmed by the fact "The standard MS Office package is installed in 11 minutes".

The argument is a key element of the proof, which is confirmed by the fact, according to the author, based on the logic of the text and the main procedure that holds the focus.

Let's try to write an argument in our system of ideas about academic writing. So, work on the text begins as follows: understanding the topic (the cultural dimension) and the attitude towards it

(critical dimension) give us the opportunity to put forward and formulate a thesis (strong thesis will remind us about the "fifth element"), to find an approach to the subject of research (procedure) and on this basis to outline the focus of the text. To organize the text, it is necessary to build a system of evidence based on the procedure, which will be based on arguments supported by the facts. The facts must cover the subject area (again the cultural dimension). It turns out that starting with the cultural dimension, we do not break away from it, but move through it in the Green Model space along the critical measurement vector (Part I, Figure 1.5).

It remains to remember that without an operational dimension and language shell text can not exist, and the language form of the text looks linear. So, we need to endow the skeleton we've received. " text (its structure) with muscles and ligaments (proof) and already have this active figure put in a dignified and beautiful shell - the language form.

To organize text in 3D, there is a simple but very effective technology called "mapping" {mapping). How it works is shown in Fig. 3.1: we take a large sheet of paper (preferably AZ) and pens or markers of three different colors. In the middle of the sheet, the blue handle (in the figure - black color), we write a draft version of the thesis, or, if we have not yet decided on our own position, the central question of the study, for example: Is it appropriate to introduce a school uniform?

Suppose you are against the school uniform, although not entirely sure that you can convince its text supporters. From the central question in this case, you can draw two lines, at the end of each line draw a diamond and in one write "Yes", and in the other - "No". Now choose the prospective position (in our case, "No") and derive three lines from the free angles of the rhombus, at the ends of which we draw three ovals. These ovals will outline three aspects of the topic under consideration, i.e. will help to cover the subject area in three directions.

Now, take the green handle (gray color in the picture) and draw three lines from each oval in the oval and draw three green ovals. In these ovals we will include arguments for this aspect. Then arm with a red handle (in the figure dashed) and from each green oval we draw three lines with red ovals, in which we will make facts - examples and information supporting this argument.

In order not to miss anything important, you can use the technologies of free writing and squeezing or technologies of placer ideas and creating clusters (see Chapter 1, Part II).

thematic pictures

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