Particles, Interjection - Modern US language


The pattern is usually called the official part of speech, which conveys the shades of lexical and syntactic meanings, clarifying and concretizing the meaning of lexical and syntactic units.

Two grammatical classes of particles are opposed: the particles are modal and amodal (ie, modeless).

Modal particles introduce in the sentence the values ​​of reality/unreality, reliability/unreliability, questionability/assertiveness, etc. The particles of this class include:

1) modal-strong-willed: would , well , give, already, [Bread would be !; Well, how can I not please my dear little man! .. (Gr.); Let me tell you !; Go already !; Go quickly];

2) Persuasive (with the significance of reliability/unreliability): razg. tea , she, supposedly, hardly, hardly, razg. I suppose , etc. [He will come soon tea; They will do her everything to her; They supposedly do not know anything about this];

3) Authorization: they say, de, say,

4) interrogative: Is it really that (What, they have already left?);

5) negative not and neither;

6) emotionally-evaluative: too (also a student!), here's another, so-and-so (where), where, what, where, what for, here, ah, yes, like this and other

L modal particles are also divided into several functional-semantic groups:

1) indicative: there, here;

2) excretory-restrictive: though, only, only (only), solely, exclusively ;

3) Definitive-specifying: a little, almost, just, exactly, exactly, almost, exactly, directly, accurately, exactly,

4) reinforcingly emphasizing: Well, really, after all, even (How do we do ?, He knows what he's saying).

They are not particles, i.e. by service words, the following affixes (included in the words):

1) the return postfix -sa/-c in the verb forms (studied, laughed)

2) pronominal derivational affixes - the prefix something - and the postfixes -or, either-some ( someone, somewhere, ).

Some independent parts of speech can appear in the sentence instead of particles. Variable words, synonymous with particles, also should not be called particles, namely: the adjectival pronoun most in the determining-clarifying meaning (cf .: on the very holiday - just on a holiday, in the heart - just in the heart); the numerals with the characteristics of the adjective one in the excretory-limiting value (cf .: only bears live here = only bears).


The interaction is a relatively unproductive part of speech, which in itself constitutes, like modal words, a special structural-semantic type of words and expresses (but does not call!) emotions (o ! as an involuntary expression of delight, ah! as an expression of a sense of fear, etc.).

Interjections do not change; they are not syntactically related to other words. In speech, interjections are separated from other elements of the statement by pauses, in the text - usually a comma or an exclamation mark: Oh, my fields, coves are lovely ... (Ec.); A! - said the aunt and looked intently at Ivan Fedorovich (G.).

As soon as the interjection begins to enter into syntactic connections with surrounding words, it immediately passes to another part of the speech; compare: interjection March! 'command to start the movement of the military unit' and the unbendable verb march ( March to drink!) March to home!).

Three lexical-grammatical categories of interjections are opposed:

1) emotional, directly conveying the feelings of the speaker: a, ah , ay , ay-yai-yi , o, , ego, e, ee , m-yes, hm, fi , fu, fie ; bravo , God, Lord , priests , etc. It is the interjections of the emotional type that fully express the importance of the given grammatical class of words;

2) imperative, giving this or that order or command to the addressee: , , march , na, stop , basta , atu ; a number of interjections of this type are used in communicating with domestic animals:/дя/л /,/ю, кис-кис , etc. These interjections combine the properties of an interjection and a verb;

3) etiquette, expressing common formulas of speech etiquette: to dating , thank you , not worth , etc. Emotionality of etiquette interjections is usually neutralized by predictability their use in communicative situations of certain types (in speech acts of greeting, farewell, gratitude, etc.).

From interjections, it is necessary to distinguish onomatopoeic sounds - they are immutable words reproducing sounds produced by living beings, mechanisms or characteristic of the environment: ha-ha-ha /, qua-kva , trah-tararah etc.

Onomatopoeia does not express emotions and in the sentence is usually not isolated from other words, performing the function of a member of the sentence. For example: ... L the girl chi-hee-hee da ha-ha-ha! (P.) - onomatopoeia here is a predicate; But the stupid cuckoo , ambitious talker , one of his cookies repeats (P.) - onomatopoeia acts as a complement. Cf. also in children's speech: Hryu-hryu [pig] sleeps onomatopoeia serves as a subject.

A peculiarity of the semantics of onomatopoeia is the sound motivation of their meanings. Nevertheless, in different languages, onomatopoeias, corresponding to the same meaning, are different; Wed: United States. gav-gav and angl, bow-wow (bow-wow); United States. qua-kw and your new-born in the aboriginal language of Australia. Consequently, onomatopoeia is part of the lexical composition of the language (not accidentally they are fixed by dictionaries). At the same time, they do not constitute a special part of speech, but are specific "substitutes" nouns and verbs. In this, the same onomatopoeia can perform the functions of that name (compare in children's speech: Our av-av [dog] escaped ), then the verb (Dog all av-au-au-av, angry at someone).

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