When studying phonetics, it is necessary to transmit the sounding speech as accurately as possible on the letter. Therefore, use a special
a record called phonetic transcription. Its main principles are:
1) each character (letter) should indicate a sound, there should be no letters that denote sounds;
2) each character (letter) should denote one sound, and not a combination of sounds;
3) each character (letter) must always mean the same sound.
United States phonetic transcription uses the letters of the United States alphabet. But some letters in the speech record are not used: i, w , e, e do not correspond to the second and third principles of transcription; ni can be read in different ways and also does not meet these principles; instead of d is used [and].
The letters 5, ь can be used in transcription in a special meaning. Thus, [v] denotes a vowel, the middle between [s] and [a], pronounced, for example, in the place of the letters a, a in the words prybryt Y ], [i], [i], [i], [i]. The sign [e] is also used instead of [i]: n [e] rub, l . The sign [i] can denote a vowel close to [u], pronounced, for example, in the place of the letters u, e, n in words: p [i] , n [i], the wheelbarrow, the bowl [ck, kam [n], mes [c]] c.
There are more sounds in the language of sounds than the letters of the alphabet. Therefore, United States phonetic transcription also uses:
1) the letter of the Latin alphabet y. ^ blka], [da] 'y];
2) the letter of the Greek alphabet y, which denotes a voiced consonant, pronounced, for example, in place x in words of the type biennial, supersonic ;3) the sign of n denoting a sound close to [o], but not obliterated, pronounced by a part of those speaking the literary language, for example, in the first pre-syllable syllable: [vlda], [trlva];
4) the sign [ig], denoting a nasal rear-lingual sound, found, for example, in the words futka, com]
5) diacritical (superscript and subscript) signs that indicate the following features of sounds:
[s'] is a soft consonant;
[s] - semi-soft consonant
[c °] - a withered consonant;
[c] is a long consonant (in this sense also the sign [:] is used - for example, [c:]),
[dz] is a fused sound
[t] - implosive consonant
[l] is a stunned sonorious consonant
[l] - syllabic consonant;
[and | - the non-logical vowel;
[a] - a vowel, advanced forward and upward at the beginning of the sound;
[a] - a vowel, advanced forward and up at the end of the sound;
[a] - a vowel, advanced forward and upward along the entire length of the sound;
[and] is a sound intermediate between [and] and [e], but closer to [and], "open [and]", [and], prone to [e]
[э] - a vowel pushed back.
Vowel and consonant sounds
All sounds of speech are divided into vowels and consonants. They differ in articulation and acoustics.
There are two sources of speech sounds. One is the vibrations of the vocal cords as the air passes through the larynx. These oscillations are harmonic, periodic; they create a tone, a musical sound. Another source of speech sounds is noise, non-harmonic sound; it arises as a result of overcoming of various obstacles by a stream of air.
When vowels form, the vocal cords are trembling, but the air stream passes through the mouth freely, without encountering any obstacles. When forming a consonant, the air stream overcomes the obstruction in the oral cavity. This basic articulatory difference between vowels and consonants is due to their other differences.
So, vowels are purely tone sounds, and consonants are distinguished by the presence of noise. If the vowels are characterized by a weak jet of air, then to overcome the barrier when pronouncing consonants you need a stronger jet of air. In the formation of vowels, the muscular tension almost equally extends throughout the oral cavity, and when the consonants are formed, the muscular tension is concentrated in the place where the obstruction arises (compare, for example, the sounds [i] and ]).
Vowels are rangers: the more loudly we want to pronounce them, the wider we open our mouths. Consonants - closers: the more loudly we want to pronounce them, the closer the organs of speech should be. For example, in order to speak louder [a], one must mouth a mouth -
cover wider; to speak louder [c], you need to push the tongue closer to the teeth.
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