Speech in interpersonal and mass communication - Stylistics and literary editing

Speaking in interpersonal and mass communication

The main area of ​​the use of colloquial speech is everyday everyday communication (unlike book forms for which the main function is message, ie one-way information transfer). Speaking was the first, which the person mastered and continues to master, however, her research began only in the 1950s. much later than the study of other styles. This is due to two main reasons: everyday speech was not considered a subject worthy of attention of scientists for a long time; besides, without special means (tape recorder, etc.), it was difficult to materialize, save for later analysis.

Speaking is a form of communication between people who speak the literary language. It is a kind of basic form of existence of the national language, than it differs from vernacular, which is outside the literary language. Words such as "bugger, dunk, syusyu-musyu, profursetka", etc., should not be used either in oral or in written speech of a cultured person. The main features of spoken language as part of the literary language are spontaneity, ease of communication, while observing the rules of the codified form of the language of the people.

Speaking, like other styles, has two varieties: it is used not only in oral, but also in written form, giving ease to communication. By resorting to colloquial speech, usually make messages on Internet forums, letters and notes to good acquaintances: Old man, your request for me is nonsense, a couple of trifles. Everything will be type-top!

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Of course, we are familiar with this style from an early age, and especially to teach colloquial speech is not necessary. However, even here there are distortions, when, in order to look more cultured, people use book words in everyday communion where they are inappropriate. In the 1950s. loved to give as an example a young man who turned to the child: Girl, you are on what subject crying ? Nowadays, the official question on what is hardly likely to get into an oral appeal to children, but in a written message this happens:

Dear children! So it was summer, a long-awaited vacation. I represent how you are now rejoicing ... Our government has taken a whole complex of measures aimed at organizing your summer holiday (from an appeal to the children of one of the municipal leaders in Moscow).

The sign of colloquial speech, along with spontaneity and ease, is the desire for laconism, which manifests itself at all levels of the language. Thus, the desire to save speech effort is most clearly revealed at the phonetic level ( of the world, pzhalsta, Pal Sanych, nikada , etc.) and syntactically, for example in abridged constructions: I - to to the boss ( go ) , Tell the person he came to us a few days ago, that he again needs ( to the person who ).

However, the most distinctive feature of the colloquial style is manifested in the vocabulary, in the so-called spoken words: intercept (eat), wander (around the city) , lousy (day), etc. In the dictionary, such words have a litter acceleration Know that such words belong to colloquial vocabulary, it is necessary first of all in order not to use they are there, where an informal conversation is inappropriate. See, for example, in the advertising text: The proposed tool will help you get rid of such muck as mold - the book words suggested, get rid are better combined with the book inconvenience or neutral trouble, than with expressive but colloquial disgust.

At the end of XX century. a clear contrast between the forms of literary and non-literary speech was violated by the appearance of the so-called general jargon . In 1999, an explanatory dictionary of the United States common jargon, "The Words We Have Met", was published. It contains words that up to that time not only could not be used in the speech of an intelligent person, but were often unknown to him. Meanwhile, in our time, such words as fallen ('cash'), kumpol ('head'), bought ('deceived' ), the plot ('refusal to commit crimes'), order ('pay the murder'), cut ('understand'), to get out ('to lose consciousness, to fall asleep'), etc., are understood by practically everyone, and almost all are used by all.

Like other vocabulary groups outside the literary language, the words of general jargon have an increased emotional-expressive coloring and can become the emotional culmination of speech. However, it is hardly appropriate to saturate your speeches with such words, since this speech is perceived as reduced, and sometimes vulgar, which does not contribute to the success of communication.

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