Stylistics of text categories
The concept of the text category
The development of linguistics and text stylistics has caused a research interest not only in functional and semantic types of speech, but also in other speech structures. In the last quarter of the 20th century, there was definitely a sense of inadequacy of stylistic analysis in support of the elementary level units of the language. "The fuller, deeper and more detailed description of the lexical-semantic and grammatical attributes of styles, the less clear becomes the stylistic specificity of each type of speech," wrote VV Odintsov.
This led to an active search for complex units of linguistic analysis. The term field (lexical-semantic, morphological-lexical, thematic, functional-textual), text parameter , etc., began to be used in the achievement of functional grammar. But most often the structured functional-semantic unity in the text and class of texts began to be realized on the basis of the general scientific term category, having a number of advantages. First, the term is devoid of additional meanings, whereas, for example, the term field indicates a structured character (the presence of the sense core and periphery in the selected linguistic set). In addition, there remains the question of whether the universal meaning is always organized in the form of a field. Secondly, the term category retains the signs of all other terms, above all - an indication of the multielementality, structure, which corresponds to the essence of the whole text, which is, according to Odintsov, the "compositional type of speech". Thirdly, and most importantly, the term category primarily indicates the formatted content, i.e. on the sign nature of this phenomenon.
The concept of a category is associated with abstractness, which is abstracted from reality and fixed in the language, which can serve as a means of meaningful differentiation of the object. In the hierarchy of communicative categories, one of the primary categories is the goal that determines the quality of the other categories and unites them around them. Language in its functioning (speech) can not be interpreted outside the concept of purpose. The text, the whole speech product, is formed and functions as a result of the speaker's unfolding of the speaker's thought, aimed at achieving his non-speech goal. The goal setting reflects the planned result of speech actions, and it is achieved due to the synchronous action of homogeneously oriented more particular categories. Each of these categories, the conceptual universals of the text, reflects a certain part of the author's design, and their totality is able to model this or that textotype. Communicative unit of the highest level, the text, appears as a set of system-activity categories, complementing each other and intertwining among themselves.
Like the level units of a language, the categories of the text are sign structures. The plan for the content of such a sign is one or another conceptual universal, a single meaning in the whole text (for example, the meaning of space), and the expression plan is an expedient type composition of different-level linguistic means. The text category (TK) is a structural-content component, which carries in itself the basic properties of the whole, namely: purposefulness and compositional character inherent in the whole text.
As for the categories allocated in the functional grammar, the main thing for the text category (tekstemy) is the generality of the semantic function of the lexical, grammatical and other elements expressing it. It is this generality that is the criterion for distinguishing the text category as a special phenomenon. In the formal respect, tekstemy are not unified. They are not rigidly connected with a certain level of the linguistic system, nor with the dominance of a certain type of linguistic means. The norm is only complex maintenance of the given universal sense, interaction and the goal-oriented unidirectionality of the means used.
Initially, the linguistics of the text was noticed and examined global categories of integrity (coherence), cohesion, completeness and isolation, which together form the grammar of the text (IV Arnold, MP Brandes, IR Galperin and other). Later it is proposed to divide the text categories into content (conceptual) and structural ones, with their subtypes (Z. Ya. Turaeva). The system-activity approach proved fruitful (EV Sidorov), whose essence lies in the fact that the intentional side of the text (the idea is what I think and should be achieved by the author) and its operational side (the actual text, the verbal design of the conceived) are correlated , the text reproduces the situation of its generation. The scientific text in general terms reproduces the situation of the scientific process, the colloquial narrative is constructed according to the scheme of the event reflected in it, the newspaper essay reflects the model of the journalist's work on the chosen problem, etc.
Within the framework of the Perm School of Functional Stylistics, the concept of highlighting text structures based on the idea of reflecting by a text a certain type of activity and the corresponding situation of cognition was developed. Such text structures are called functional semantic-stylistic categories (FSSK). Categories of dialogic, logical, hypothetical, accentuated, continuity of knowledge, etc., received an expanded stylistic description within the framework of scientific and journalistic functional styles. At the same time, FSSC are modeled according to the field principle, and the core of the category is determined on the basis of two main criteria: functional-semantic and statistical.
The categorical-text concept has also been developed, also based on the principle of reflectivity, but in a different aspect. The text (unit of communication and conjugation of the communicative activity of the sender and the recipient of speech) is generally regarded as a reflection of the communicative act. The latter consists of relatively independent components, including the subject of speech; subject and addressee of communication; their psychological interaction; Space and time are indispensable attributes of the generation of text. Accordingly, the text categories of the subject, subject (authorization), addressee, key (text modality), text space and time are highlighted. Due to the speech volume of the text, a structural category of the composition is added to them. In aggregate, these text categories form a communicative system that relatively adequately simulates the text as a whole.
So, the principle of the scientific description of text categories is the provision that a single functional-semantic core (a kind of standard meaning) should receive the same type of speech manifestation in texts. This hypothesis has been repeatedly verified. She received confirmation on the material of various functional styles of speech, as well as on the level of general linguistic theory.
Technology description of the text category is primarily in the selection of all language, speech, textual means, expressing a certain meaning (for example, the signals of the topic or the signals of the text time). The material signal TC can act as a lingueme, i.e. the actualized unit of language (phoneme, intonama, word, morpheme, stable word combination), and the speech, i.e. structural, constructed language education (free phrase, speech reception, sentence-utterance, sphere-sphere unity and even the compositional part of the text: headline, introduction, etc.). Further, this material is analyzed from the standpoint of textual statics and dynamics. The static approach is that from the set of material components of the category, taking into account their repeatability and location, the basic means for a given type of texts or for a specific text (the core of a functional-semantic field) and additional peripherals are allocated. The dynamic aspect is realized on the basis of the category of the sequence and is associated with the allocation of linear structures of linguistic signals and analysis of the relationships in these linear series. This takes into account the combinatorics of the detected signals and their location in the most significant positions of the text.The idea of describing a field device of a category for many tekstem (including a theme, text space and time, tonality) is effective, but not fully, because it leaves outside the study the actual textual qualities of the category, primarily its internal text structure, compositiveness. If we take into account the latter, the number of variables in the parameters of the scientific description of the TC increases to four. This is a) a set of language components; b) combinatorics of linguistic components in the linear series of means of expression TK; c) placement of TC signals in text space; d) the textual significance of different types of language components (determined on the basis of the frequency of types, as well as their representation in strong positions of the text).
It should be borne in mind that the text categories are not uniform in their content and character of structuring, and the composition category, structural by its nature, can not be analyzed on a unified basis with others. The means of expression of a given text system is not a linguistic one, but a text component is a fragment of a text (a communicative block, a relatively independent m and a prototype).
So, with a categorical-text approach, the unit of text structuring is a text category - an essential content component of the text, programmed already at the stage of the primary author's design, and in the text expressed as a composition of linguistic and speech means. Each such textema carries in itself a separate semantic line of the text (for example, its theme, tonality, time), expressed by an organized collection of means. In other words, the text category is a functional and semantic unity that is part of the text along with other similar entities. Each of them can be allocated in the form of speech data and analyzed as result-statically, and process-dynamically.The categorical-text approach opens the possibility of studying separately taken content components of the text, revealing the linguistic and linguistic technology of the formation of these areas of common text meaning. Individual tekstemy, as well as texts in general, are functionally variable, i.e. are realized in the form of a set of functional-style and genre variants. Description of the implementation of categories in texts of different styles and genres is a task of text stylistics.
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