Syntax, Methods of studying syntax - Modern US language

Syntax tools

In United States, the syntactic means by which sentences and phrases are constructed are diverse. The main are the forms of words in their interaction and the service words. By means of inflection indicators and auxiliary words, the syntactic connection of words in a word combination and sentence is realized. For example, in the sentence Through the cloud the non-heating sun was looking at the earth (Sh.) The words are connected by generic endings ( the sun was looking , the sun is not warming ), and also case endings in combination with prepositions ( looked at the ground , looked through the cloud).

In the construction of the sentence, intonation and the order of words are also used. Intonation (message, question, motivation) is not only a means of grammatical organization of the sentence, but also an indicator of the completeness of the utterance. The order of words is the relative position of them in the composition of the phrase and sentence. In United States there are certain rules for the relative location of words in different kinds of their combinations. Thus, the grammatical norm is the statement of the predicate after the subject; The agreed definition is usually placed before the word being determined, and the uncoordinated definition after it. Deviations from this rule are used for stylistic purposes; cf .: the genius of pure beauty (P.) - magnificent nature wilting (T1.). The order of words can be a formal indicator of the syntactic function of the word in the absence of the main indicators: the art of cinema - the definition function (cf .: the art of painting at the theater ); Marry - do not bast put on (ate) - the function of the subject prepositive infinitive.

Syntactic units are associated with units of other levels of the language system: they are constructed from words, more precisely - from word forms. The syntax, therefore, is based on vocabulary and morphology. Especially closely related syntax and morphology as two sides of the grammatical structure of the language.

Morphological units, morphological indicators are realized in speech through word combination and sentence. Morphological categories of parts of speech are the backbone of the syntactic relations (. Western margin - defining relationship "subject-sign"), as well as the syntactic categories (.hun grenade - elapsed time, real modality).

Methods for studying syntax

Different methods of studying the syntax are determined by the general level of development of science, the methodological basis of research and the worldview of the scientist, the practical tasks of using the results of scientific research in language teaching, etc. A certain influence is exerted by related sciences, in particular logic, psychology.

The most significant studies of United States syntax, predetermined and prepared the current state of the national syntactic science, refer to the second half of the XIX - beginning of the XX century. They are represented by three methodological directions: logical (FI Buslaev), psychological (LL Notebnya, DN Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky), formal (F. F. Fortunatov, L. L. Shakhmatov, L.M. Peshkovsky). These directions were a significant achievement for the linguistics of their time, but they suffered from one-sidedness. Representatives of each direction considered any other approach to syntax to be wrong. Potebnya began to develop his syntactic system with criticism of Buslaev's logical concept. Representatives of the formal direction (especially Chess), adopting certain provisions of the psychological concept, emphasized the role of word forms in the syntactic system.

An important stage in the study of United States syntax was a multidimensional approach to the proposal as a syntactic unit that has both a logical, psychological, and formal side. This dialectical approach was developed in the 1950s. VV Vinogradov, who, in addition to criticizing the methodological weaknesses of the three directions indicated, singled out and used all the valuable in them. Vinogradov developed the basis of the structural and semantic method of syntax research. This method is now the most popular among researchers and adopted in the university and school practice of teaching the syntax of the modern United States language. The essence of this method consists in a joint examination of the signified and signifying sides of syntactic units. The description of syntactic units is based on their grammatical semantics and formal means.

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