Types of Derivatives, Derivative Derivative Structure - Modern US

Types of Derivatives

It is customary to distinguish between systemic (linguistic) and contextual (speech) derivatives. Sternievye derivaty ( real words) are constructed in strict accordance with word-forming laws of the language and are fixed in explanatory and other dictionaries

{writer, self-effacing , read). Such derivatives are not created by speakers in the communication process, but are reproduced by them in a finished form, extracted from the vocabulary stored in memory.

Among the contextual derivatives formed by the speaker in speech, but as necessary, distinguish between potential words and occasionalisms.

Potential words are usually non-dictionaries of the type self-imprisonment, objector , integrate , usually created in case of need in spontaneous speech on samples of highly productive word-formation types. The meaning of a potential word is easily understood by everyone, since it is a simple sum of the values ​​of the morphemes that form the basis.

Occasionalisms are authorial neologisms created in colloquial or artistic speech with violation of word-formation patterns and therefore clearly contrasted with both "real" and potential words (which makes occasionalisms a bright stylistic means widely used, for example, in poetry). Cf. absent in the most complete dictionaries of the United States language occasionalisms of the poet Vel. Khlebnikov, who experimented a lot with the word: samognanets 'he who drives himself' ( Samogonians in the distance , into a foreign land ...), a sense 'foresight', whole (from all and throat) , etc.

Derivative derivational structure

The main task of word-forming analysis is to establish the derivational structure of the derivative. The word-formation structure is a relationship in the basis of a derivative of two elements: a) producing (i.e., the producing basis or several such bases); b) Derivator (or word formative). For example, at the base of the booklet (a) derivative, the generating book - and the derivation -ech -.

The producing basis can be represented in the basis of the derivative as in its entirety chit (s) - Reader ; North + East - & gt; northeast |, and in the truncated [high (s) - higher than (a ); neighborhood store - & gt; Raymage ]. In addition to truncating the producing base, alternation at the end of the producing base (hand -> handle) and some other morphological phenomena associated with the mutual adaptation of the producer and the derivator are also observed to a friend (see section "Morphology").

Derivator is an element of the word-building structure, which is a concrete means by which the given derivative word is formed from the producer. Differents are different: affix, affix, and mixed.

The affix durivers are:

1) affixes, i.e. suffixes ( boldness , reread), prefixes (main language, finish) and postfixes ( learn , who -only) •,

2) a combination of affixes (or circumfixes), i.e. prefix + suffix ( window sill ), prefix + postfix (run out ), suffix + post f and k with (proud (compare proud)], prefix + suffix + postfix joke (compare joke)].

The following operations performed on generating bases are considered to be non-zero (or operational) derivators:

1) reduction of the manufacturing basis (manager -> gt; manager);

2) Addition of several producing bases (with their possible truncation), accompanied by a rigid fixation of their sequence within the derived base and a single stress (lottery of cars and motorcycles -> motor-car)

3) the replacement of flexion at the base and the corresponding narrowing of the inflectional paradigm [adj. dining room, dining room, dining room (varies by birth, number, case) - & gt; n. dining room (only by numbers and cases)].

The measured derivateers are the unity of the affix and bezafiksnyh word-formation means within the same derivat: for example, addition of the bases and suffixation (high school student & lt; - senior, class + -nik).

The nature of the derivation is important for distinguishing between word-formation methods.

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