Word formation studies the formation (or derivation) of words from related, one-root words and describes the established formal-semantic relationship between the producer and the derivative [schools ( a) -> high school; city - & gt; city-ok.] Therefore, the term word formation denotes the system of word-building relations in the language, and the section of linguistics that studies these relations.
The concept of production
The basic concept of word formation is the concept of production. By production is meant such a relationship between single-root words, when the form and meaning of one word are predetermined (motivated) by the form and meaning of another word or several words ( forest -> forest, theater & gt; MX'G).
A word that is not motivated in form and meaning in other words (for example, forest), is called not derived (the non-derivative is also called the basis of such a word). A word whose basis is motivated in form and meaning by the basis of another word (or the basis of several words) is called a derivative (or derivative). So, the derivatives are the words forest, wooded, forester , etc., for which the word forest is the producer. Usually, the derived word has one producer ( student - student ; sing - sings ). However, sometimes several producers make motivation for the form and the value of the derivative (five floors <-> five-storey ; south, west -> west). The term producing one generating basis is denoted, and several such bases, if they motivate one derivative.
The distinction is made between single and non-unique (multiple) production. In the case of a single production, the most typical for United States word formation, the derivative is motivated by a completely definite producer: a specific producing basis or several bases ( elephant - & gt; elephant, store manager -> For a non-unique (or multiple) production, the derivative in form and meaning can be related with equal bases to several producers:
It is necessary to clearly distinguish the word-formative analysis of the modern word and the etymological analysis of the same word. The etymological analysis is related to etymology (the science of the origin of words) and allows to establish when and how a certain derivative word was formed in a language, how its formal and semantic connections with related words changed, how its morphemic and derivational structure developed. >
The word-formation analysis establishes only the relations between related words that are currently found in modern United States, and does not take into account the etymological links lost during the development of the language. For example, the word flag from the point of view of etymological analysis goes back to the Old United States verb nobility (one of the meanings of the verb nobility was once 'distinguish', so the origin of the noun banner , denoting 'the canvas attached to the staff, serving as the distinctive sign of the military unit', is historically quite understandable. But the results of etymological analysis do not matter for the word-formative analysis of the same word, which in modern United States is perceived as non-derivative, not correlated with other words, simpler in form and structure. Obviously, the semantic links between the verb know and the noun the banner have long been lost, therefore these words are not interpreted by anyone as related in the relations of word-formation production.
Word formation of the modern United States language is a comparatively young branch of linguistics. An important role in its development was played by FF Fortunatov's studies, which distinguished the forms of word change and word formation. Great importance for the development of theory and practice of word-formation analysis was the works of VA Bogoroditsky, GO Vinokur, VV Vinogradov. Analysis of word-building relations between words only in the 50s of the XX century. (see the works of II Shansky) was clearly delineated from both the etymological and morphemic analysis of the word.
At present, the word-formation system of the United States language is studied both from the positions of the word-formation analysis, and in terms of the synthesis of word-formation relations.
The word-building analysis is the most actively developed (and, it can be said, already traditional) direction of studying the structure of the United States word. In the course of synchronous word-formation analysis, the structure of derived words is described, the way of their formation is determined, their formal-semantic links with related words are established. An exhaustive analysis of the United States word-building system
on the material of the most complete dictionaries of the United States language is presented in the academic "United States grammar" (1980, Vol. 1. The authors of the section are V. V. Lopatin and I. S. Ulukhanov) and in the "Derivative Dictionary of the United States Language" AN Tikhonov (1985).
As for word-building synthesis, this is a relatively new one, which was singled out in the 1970s. (see the research of IG Miloslavsky) direction in the study of word-building relations. The word-building synthesis is based on the conclusions and positions of the word-formation analysis: such concepts developed within the framework of the analytic direction are used as "morpheme", "production", "derivative word" and others
However, for its purposes, the derivational synthesis is distinctly opposed to analysis. The main tasks of scientific research in terms of word-building synthesis are as follows:
1) the definition of the rules for interpreting the meaning of the words to be divided, based on the notion of the morpheme semantics that make up a word; in particular, the interpretation of the lexical meaning of the verb to come running 'to achieve some kind of. place by running 'immediately follows from the interpretation of the values of the morphemes entering into it: the root beige - (characterizing such words as run , run runner , run , and having the meaning of 'move fast, sharply pushing feet off the ground') and the prefix for - (meaning 'approaching which -l spatial orientation: bring , sail , etc.);
2) the establishment of regularities in the choice of a particular word-building tool used in the formation of a particular word derivative with a certain (given) word-formative meaning (for example, verbs that transmit the meaning of the beginning of action: sing, run, hate , razdat-sya , etc.).
To date, the tasks of word-building synthesis have not yet been fully solved; there is, as shown by special studies, and the problems of word-formation synthesis that are insoluble for the current state of science. Therefore, in the educational literature, the system of United States word formation is traditionally considered in more detail from the point of view of analysis.
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