ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF DAMAGE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION...

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

As a result of the introduction of Chapter 5, a bachelor must:

know

• methodological basis for assessing damage to the atmosphere, water, land and bioresources;

be able to

• operate on some regional aspects of damage;

own

• Practical skills in solving specific problems.

Methodological basis for damage assessment

Economic assessment of damage to the environment involves a monetary assessment of the negative changes in a wide range of consequences - the deterioration of human health due to air, water, food contamination; changing the opportunities for development and education of the individual due to the disappearance of the familiar landscape and cultural monuments; economic losses from accelerating the corrosion of metal, reducing the productivity of farmland, the death of fish in water bodies, etc. The assessment of this damage consists of the following costs: additional costs of the company due to a change in the natural environment; costs for the return of the environment to the previous state; the cost of compensating for the risk to human health; costs for additional natural resource for neutralization of pollutant flux; additional costs of future society in the context

with the irrevocable withdrawal of some of the scarce resources (Figure 5.1) [5].

Of course, such a comprehensive valuation involves enormous difficulties. The method of empirical dependencies (formula 3.1), which consists in statistical processing of actual data, makes it possible to obtain approximate empirical relationships between the studied indicators of the state of recipients and the negative factors under consideration, but it requires a huge amount of information and is practically not applied in practice. The current methodology uses an approach based on a simplified procedure, which is based on bringing different impurities to the "mono pollutant", i.e. aggregated form (formula 3.2).

The structure of damage caused by environmental pollution

Fig. 5.1. The structure of damage caused by pollution of the environment

Such an approach to damage assessment requires a huge amount of information and is practically not applied in practice. In existing techniques, a simplified procedure is used, which is based on bringing different impurities to the "mono pollutant", i.e. aggregated form. Let's consider it in more detail.

Economic Assessment of Damage from Atmospheric Pollution

Calculation of annual economic damage from atmospheric air pollution U atm is determined on the basis of formula (3.2):

(5.1)

where f is a correction that takes into account the nature of the impurity dispersion in the atmosphere; the rest of the notation from 3.2.

If you receive this estimate for the region, i.e. for all sources in the region as a whole, it would be wise to sum these estimates by hundreds (and with a more detailed approach, in thousands) of sources operating in the territory. However, the really accessible information is not so accurate and detailed by sources, so that the corresponding sharp complication of calculations could be considered justified. Therefore, for a dimensionless coefficient σ, which characterizes the relative degree of air pollution hazard over a given type of territory, it is recommended to use a weighted average, taking into account the areas of individual species (Table 5.1). The value of the coefficient of reduction of the impurity of the i type to the "mono pollutant" are given in Table. 5.2.

Table 5.1

Values ​​of the relative atmospheric air pollution hazard over different types of territories

Type of contaminated area

σ

Resorts, sanatoriums, reserves, sanctuaries

10

Suburban recreation areas, garden and cottage areas

8

Populated areas with population density n people/ha:

0.1 n

at a density of & gt; 300 people/ha

8

Territories of industrial enterprises (including sanitary protection zones)

4

Forests:

Group 1

0.2

Group 2

0.1

Group 3

0.025

Arable land:

southern zones (south of 50 ° N)

0.25

Central Black Earth region, the south of Siberia

0.15

Other areas

0.1

Gardens, vineyards

0.5

Pastures, hayfields

0.05

Table 5.2

The value of the coefficient A i for some substances emitted to the atmosphere

Substance

Аi, usl. t/t

Carbon monoxide

1

Sulphurous anhydride

22

Hydrogen sulphide

54.8

Sulfuric acid

49

Nitrogen oxides in recalculation by mass on N0.,

41.1

Ammonia

10.4

Volatile low-molecular hydrocarbons by carbon (LNU)

3.16

Acetone

5.55

Phenol

310

Acetaldehyde

41.6

3, 4-benzapyrene

12.6 • 103

thematic pictures

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