State nature reserves and national parks
Territories of state nature reserves are withdrawn from economic use; their specially protected natural complexes and objects (land, water, bowels, flora and fauna) that have environmental, scientific, ecological and educational significance are preserved as samples of the natural environment, typical or rare landscapes, places of conservation of the genetic fund of plant and animal life .
State nature reserves are nature conservation, scientific research and environmental education institutions that have the purpose of preserving and studying the natural course of natural processes and phenomena, the genetic fund of plant and animal life, certain species and communities of plants and animals, typical and unique ecological systems .
The following main tasks are assigned to state nature reserves:
• the protection of natural territories in order to conserve biological diversity and maintain in a natural state protected natural complexes and objects;
• the organization and conduct of scientific research, including the maintenance of the Annals of Nature;
• implementation of environmental monitoring within the framework of a national environmental monitoring system;
• environmental education and the development of cognitive tourism;
• Assistance in the training of scientists and specialists in the field of environmental protection.
On the territory of the reserve activities that contradict the tasks of the state nature reserve and the regime of special protection of its territory established in the provision on this state nature preserve are prohibited.
Activities and activities aimed at preserving natural complexes in a natural state, restoration and prevention of changes in natural complexes and their components as a result of anthropogenic impact are allowed on the territories of state nature reserves; prevention of conditions capable of causing natural disasters, threatening the lives of people and human settlements.
In the state nature reserves can be allocated sites, which exclude any human intervention in natural processes. The size of these sites is determined by the need to preserve the entire natural complex in a natural state.
According to the Regulations on State Nature Reserves in the United States, approved by Resolution No. 48 of the Government of the RSFSR of December 18, 1991, the following prohibited types of activity on the territory of the reserves are:
• Actions that change the hydrological regime of lands;
• prospecting and development of minerals, disturbance of soil cover, outcrops of minerals, outcrops and rocks;
• Construction and placement of industrial and agricultural enterprises and their individual facilities, construction of buildings and structures, roads and overpasses, power transmission lines and other communications, except those necessary for the operation of reserves;
• collection of mineralogical collections, except for those envisaged by subjects and plans of scientific research in reserves, etc.
Stay on the territory of state nature reserves of persons who are not their employees is allowed in the presence of permits of federal state budgetary institutions that manage them. Visits for cognitive tourism are charged.
National parks , being environmental, educational, and research institutions (which unites them with reserves), are also intended for regulated tourism. Currently, there are more than 30 national parks.
Zoning and proper rational use of their territories, where a differentiated regime of special protection is established, taking into account natural, historical and cultural and other peculiarities, becomes a serious practical problem.
In the national parks are allocated functional areas:
• reserved - with the prohibition of any economic activity and recreation;
• specially protected - with a strictly regulated visit;
• cognitive tourism - for environmental education;
• recreational - for recreation;
• Protection of historical and cultural objects;
• customer service - to accommodate accommodation, services, cultural, household and information services for visitors;
• Economic purpose.
Federal Law "On Environmental Protection", US ZC and Federal Law "On Specially Protected Natural Territories"; interact with the provisions of Federal Law No. 49-FZ of 07.05.2001 "On the Territories of Traditional Use of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the United States".
In the lands of national parks and other PAs, it is allowed to include land plots owned by citizens and legal entities on the right of ownership.
For visiting the territory of the national park for tourism and recreation, a fee is charged, the procedure for determining which is established by the federal executive authority responsible for national parks.The management of national parks is carried out by federal state budgetary institutions possessing land plots, including forests granted on the basis of permanent perpetual use.
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