TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF NATURAL ACTIVITIES...

TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES

As a result of the introduction of Chapter 11, a bachelor must:

know

• procedure for developing feasibility studies for environmental measures;

be able to

• justify the choice of the comparison base, determine the composition of environmental costs and the order of bringing the measures to a comparable species;

own

• Methodology for assessing the economic efficiency of single-purpose and multi-purpose activities and solving specific problems.

General

One of the directions of greening economic development and solving the problem of reliable maintenance of environmental quality indicators at a level not lower than the normative one, as well as rational use of raw materials and fuel and energy resources is to develop and widely implement economically justified environmental measures in various economic sectors. Developed in the industry, aimed at solving the problems discussed above, at the moment are quite diverse and, for their intended purpose, can be divided into three large groups [6-9].

To the first group include single-purpose environmental measures, the only task of which is the complete elimination or reduction of industrial pollution of the environment. The environmental effect of this type of activities is due to the installation of standard environmental equipment at the enterprise, the development and implementation of new more efficient methods of water and gas purification, introducing certain changes in the technology of manufacturing products, leading to a reduction in the concentration of harmful components in industrial effluents and gas emissions, .

The second group combines single-purpose resource-saving measures to achieve savings in raw materials, fuel and energy. Resource-saving effect is obtained as a result of lowering the norms of consumption of raw materials and fuel and energy resources in the sphere of production, use of new less material and energy-consuming technological processes and industries, etc.

The activities of the third group are multi-purpose. Here, environmental problems are solved along with problems of improving the quality of products, improving the use of raw materials, fuel, energy, technological equipment, manpower and other elements of material production (creating a closed water system for industrial enterprises, works aimed at cleaning industrial effluents and gas emissions with recovery of useful substances, waste disposal, previously subject to burial, the creation of low-waste production). The structure of the economic effect obtained when implementing the activities of the third group is ambiguous and depends on their type.

As the research itself, as well as the process of introduction and further industrial application of new or typical technical solutions require significant material costs, it becomes necessary to compare these costs with the socio-economic results obtained. Estimation of economic efficiency of nature protection and resource-saving measures is carried out on a methodical basis, given in Ch. 2 and 9, as an analysis of the effectiveness of new technology and capital investments. A specific feature of the development of feasibility studies for environmental research and projects is the need to take into account the economic damage caused to the economy by anthropogenic pollution of the environment. Reduction of this damage is the main source of the economic effect of single-purpose environmental protection measures and one of the components of the multi-purpose development effect.

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