The main environmental laws governing interactions in the system "society - nature"
But as the population grows and the intensity of its economic activity, an increase in the anthropogenic load on the natural environment also occurs. The question arises about the limits of the opposition of the natural environment to these pressures and the ways of forming relations between society and nature that make it possible not to transgress this limit in the course of economic activity. The main condition in this direction is comprehension and observance of the basic ecological laws. Recall the most important of them.
The law of internal dynamic equilibrium, the essence of which is the presence of responses of individual or interconnected natural systems and their hierarchies when they are exposed to matter, energy or information. Any change in the environment inevitably leads to the development of
natural chain reactions, going in the direction of neutralizing the produced change or the formation of new natural systems, the formation of which, with significant changes in the environment, can become irreversible. Even weak changes in one of the indicators of the system can cause strong changes in others, and also in the whole system as a whole. Changes in large ecosystems are relatively irreversible. Going hierarchically from the bottom up - from the place of impact to the biosphere as a whole - they change global processes and thereby transfer them to a new evolutionary level. At achievement of essential values of changes in the natural environment, corresponding to the concept of "critical", there are significant shifts in natural systems and in accordance with the law of internal dynamic equilibrium in the entire biosphere.
The law of tolerance is the amount of endurance of an organism or population to the limiting factor acting on it in the range between the minimum and maximum. The application of the law of tolerance is necessary in assessing the possibility of acclimatization of wild species, the success of plant cultivation, the cultivation of farm animals and other cases. The law of tolerance determines the position by which any excess of matter or energy is polluting the environment.
The law of energy maximization suggests that the survival or preservation of one system in competition with others is determined by the best organization of energy input into it and the use of its maximum quantity in the most effective way. To implement this law, the following provisions must be observed:
- mandatory creation of high-quality energy storage;
- the use of accumulated energy to ensure the supply of new energy;
- providing a cycle of substances;
- the creation of regulatory mechanisms that support the stability of the system and its ability to adapt to changing conditions;
- Establishment of energy exchange with other systems to provide energy for other types of energy.
The law of energy maximization is also true for information: the best chance of self-preservation is the system that is most capable of receiving, generating and effectively using energy and information.
The law of the minimum says: the endurance of the organism is determined by the weakest link in the chain of its ecological needs. In accordance with this law, the vital capabilities of the organism or system are limited by environmental factors, the quantity and quality of which are close to the necessary organism or ecosystem minimum. With further decrease in their level, the organism is killed or the ecosystem is destroyed. The law of the minimum is supplemented by the rule of interaction of factors, according to which the organism or the system is able to replace a scarce substance or an acting factor with another functionally similar substance or factor to some extent. The identification of a weak link is very important in optimizing the relationship between society and the environment, in forecasting the development of noobiogeocenoses, in the environmental examination of projects, it allows rationally to replace substances and impacts on less scarce, which is important in the use of nature.
The law of impoverishment of a heterogeneous substance in its island condensations. The individual system, existing in an environment with a lower level of organization, gradually loses its structure, as it dissolves in the environment. From this law it follows that any complex biotic communities preserved in small spaces are doomed to degradation. In the practice of nature management, this law dictates the need to create so-called buffer zones, that is, strips of land, within which any actions that could violate established natural regimes are prohibited. Buffer zones are created both in the conduct of intensive farming, and when creating reserves, long-term reserves and other protected areas to ensure high reliability of their operation. In general, the law of impoverishment provides the key to the development of a purposeful strategy for managing wildlife without its quantitative and qualitative depletion.
The law of limited natural resources (the rule of one percent) says that all natural resources
The Earth is finite. This law is based on the fact that if the planet Earth is a natural limited whole, then it can not have infinite parts. In this regard, talk about the availability of "inexhaustible natural resources, at least, incorrectly. For example, it is wrong to talk about the inexhaustibility of solar energy, since it is necessary to take into account the limitations imposed by the energy of the biosphere itself. Anthropogenic changes in the biosphere over the permissible limit, according to the 1% rule, remove it from the equilibrium state. All large-scale changes on the Earth's surface (powerful cyclones, volcanic eruptions, the process of global photosynthesis), as a rule, have a total energy not exceeding 1% of the energy of solar radiation incident on the surface of our planet. The artificial introduction of energy into the biosphere should not exceed this limit.
The law of the energy pyramid (rule of ten percent). In accordance with the rule of the ecological pyramid, each subsequent trophic level assimilates no more than 10% of the energy of the previous one. This law allows you to make calculations of the necessary land area to provide the population with food and other environmental and economic calculations. Exceeding this value is unacceptable, since the complete disappearance of populations may occur. The law of the energy pyramid and the 10% rule serve as a general limitation for practical purposes in human economic activity and nature management.
The rule of compulsory filling of ecological niches reads: an empty ecological niche is always naturally filled. The position of the species that he occupies in the general system of the biocenosis, the complex of his biocenotic connections and the requirements for the abiotic factors of the environment is called the ecological niche of the species. An example is the predicted by scientists the emergence of the AIDS virus. The victory over many infectious diseases of man freed the ecological niches, which inevitably had to be filled. Since, when filling a niche, the disappeared or destroyed species is replaced by a functionally similar or ecologically similar species and the replacement occurs from larger and more highly organized forms to smaller ones and organized ones, it was suggested that one of the ecological niches would be filled with a high degree virus variability. The frequency of mutations of the AIDS virus 1:10 (influenza virus 1:10).
The rule of soft management of nature consists in the indirect, directing, restoring the ecological balance of natural resources management, in the organization of desirable natural valuable reactions. This rule is also called the expedient transformation of nature, based on the restoration of the lost natural productivity of ecosystems or its enhancement through a purposeful, consistent with environmental laws.
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