British Phonographic Industry: Framework and Competition

Olivia Boachie

Business Economics and Industrial Organisation

The following analysis attempts to evaluate the composition and sources of competitive pressure in the British Phonographic Industry using Porters five makes platform model, and the way the advancement of the internet has affected the framework and performance of the industry.

Michael Porter's Five-Forces model of the music industry

Michael Porter's Five-Forces construction model recognises the economical forces that affect industry profits. The five causes are: Inside rivalry, Accessibility, Substitutes and complements, Supplier power and Buyer power. These causes may affect and abolish the profits of current businesses. The five pushes framework is a company review and industry strategy improvement instrument which let us marketers eventually create stakeholder value through industry situations. The key factors of charm are the demand and supply of products on the market, level of entrants presently in the market and their strengths and weaknesses. In response to the essay question, the English Phonographic Industry will be reviewed critically through each one of the five causes. A visual representation of Porter's Platform is shown below

British Phonographic Industry

"BPI (United kingdom Phonographic Industry) represents the UK's noted music industry, which is one of the most exciting and flourishing music sectors on earth. British artists account for one in eight albums purchased by followers around the globe" (http://www. bpi. co. uk/about-bpi. aspx). BPI co-owns the Official Charts Company in "a joint venture with the Entertainment Retails Relationship (Time). The Official Charts Company is responsible for the commissioning, circulation, marketing and promotion of the UK's industry standard music and training video graphs and sales data. BPI also keeps the industry standard for certifying Gold, Gold and Platinum sales awards" (http://www. bpi. co. uk/about-bpi. aspx). There are three major record companies within the British Phonographic Industry which can be: Warner Music UK, Sony Music Entertainment UK and Universal Music UK.

Internal Rivalry

Internal Rivalry identifies the jockeying for stocks by businesses within a market. It is fierce if competition drives prices towards costs. This is more likely whenever there are many firms, products are identified to be homogeneous, consumers are motivated and in a position to shop around, prices may be placed secretly, sales requests are large and received infrequently and the industry has excessive capacity. THE UNITED KINGDOM music business has been contested for by three big tracking studios for a long time. There is certainly severe rivalry between these taking studios; their market stocks continued to be steady for years as new opposition scarcely went into the market scheduled to great entrance obstacles. The music industry is booming when associating online and offline sales collectively.

The product distinction attainable in the music business is suprisingly low due to all types of music being about the same. The diversity could be accomplished through the setups of music provided such as CD's and online formats such as MP3's. Downloading is currently becoming more prevalent than the continuous visits to the music stores, the music business has unremittingly reduced the quantity of stores and fixated on growing an online methodology. Through repeating this they have been successful at minimizing high set costs including store leases and earnings of a higher amount of store employees which has assisted using their margins.

In conditions of competitive pressure, the music industry can be regarded as extremely competitive scheduled to predictions of the music growth which started in the 1990s. Because of more talent coming out through shows such as X-factor, Britain's Got Talent and the Tone in the united kingdom, potential performers are now offered in the music industry.


The threat of entrants is another force that determines the industry's competitive pressure. If "new entrants move into an industry they will gain market share and rivalry will intensify" (http://www. tutor2u. net/business/strategy/porter_five_forces. htm). The position of existing businesses is tougher if there are barriers to entering the marketplace. If barriers to stepping into the industry are low then your threat of new entrants will be high of course, if the obstacles to entry are high then the threat of new entrants will be low. Obstacles to entry are incredibly significant in determining the risk of new entrants. An industry can have more than one barrier. The following are well-known types of effective obstacles

-Access to suppliers and circulation channels

-Product differentiation

-Economies of level open to existing firms

The selection of a gifted designer and turning them into successful will involve skilled use of advertising, talent supervision and investment. Recognized music labels spend too much to undertaking appearance improvement promotions, and experiment with advertising before the artist's work is free for the public to see. These particular parts require professional talents and require having money.

Substitutes and Complements

Substitutes wear out profits just as as competitors stepping into the market by stealing business and increasing inner rivalry. Complements boost the demand for the merchandise in question; thus improving revenue chances for the industry. Within the music business, the options for music acquisitions or downloads can be accepted to be plagiarised music downloads online and R / c that play music 24 hours. Plagiarised music websites which offer music for free are the distinguishable options for the music industry. The consumer having a selection of whether or not to buy music or to download it continues to be a combat in their mind. So the risk of this alternate is high.

Music such as those on Jango or Napster allows consumers to hear tracks an unrestricted amount of times without the need to acquire them. While they don't really obtain the luxury of downloading music free of charge and hearing the songs on the move, it can still be seen as an alternative solution as it permits for the entertainment of consumers. With regards to Tv set and Radio music stations, the requirements for setting up those services such as TV set bins and regular subscriptions are fairly costly in comparison to the price tag on an album. But with other facilities such as the ability to track record channels and the decision of other channels on offer, they could have chosen the better option in comparison with a music album.

Supplier Power

If a companies suppliers "have bargaining electric power they will exercise that ability, sell their products at an increased price and squash industry gains" (http://www. tutor2u. net/business/strategy/porter_five_forces. htm). If the distributor drives up the purchase price paid for inputs, profits will be condensed. Suppliers end up in an important position whenever there are just a few suppliers, the source of information they provide is scarce, there are no or few alternative resources, the product is simple to differentiate and faithful individuals are unwilling to change. The bargaining powers of performers are high as it is thought that the words and skill of each performer is distinctive and can't be replaced.

Buyer Power

Buyer power is analogous to supplier power. "It refers to the power of specific customers to work out purchase prices that extract profits from retailers" (Economics of strategy 6th model, David Besanko). "Buyers have indirect electricity in competitive market segments, and the price they pay will be based upon the forces of supply and demand. The willingness of consumers to shop for the best price could instead be considered a source of internal rivalry, not indirect buyer electricity. When clients are focused, or suppliers have made relationship-specific assets, clients may exert direct power" (Economics of strategy 6th model, David Besanko). Potential buyers then demand lower prices when suppliers are flourishing and recognizing higher prices when suppliers are battling.

The consumers for the UK music business can be either individual or corporate. Commercial consumers in the music business contain online and offline stock traders who buy albums in large amounts from the music label. Stores included could be HMV and Game and online music stores which include stores such as iTunes and AmazonMP3. The negotiating power of the organization consumers can be assumed to be low due to prices being settled amidst them and labels at the time of signing the deal.

Advent of the Internet

I will now analyse the way the advent of the internet has affected the composition and performance of the music industry.

The Internet is "a worldwide computer network providing a number of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected systems using standardized communication protocols" (http://www. oxforddictionaries. com/definition/english/Internet). The structural elegance of the united kingdom music industry is determined by five underlying forces of competition. These include: The strength of rivalry among existing challengers, the barriers to entry for new challengers, the threat of substitute products or service, the bargaining electricity of suppliers, and the bargaining electric power of the potential buyers. Below are items under each of the forces about how the internet influences the music industry that are extracted from Michael. E Porter's Competitive strategy free press, 1980.

Rivalry among existing competitors

The Internet has enlarged the quantity of rivals in the music industry and lowered the significance of geographic restrictions. "There is certainly increased rivalry because companies have a stake to achieve success with use of the Internet. Rivalry increases when there may be less differentiation between products. There exists highly extreme competition because of the Internet becoming an internet system for commercial use" (www. ukessays. com).

Barriers to entry for new competitors

The internet has lowered the fixed costs necessary for a business to get to their customers. Most record labels find it easier to launch online projects being that they are positive about brand commitment and trust.

Threat of swap products or services

The internet has helped in increasing the pressure from alternate products, as it might increase the variety of products available to consumers. This is done by customers being able to now purchase CD's online or download tunes for free.

Bargaining ability of the suppliers

"The web offers a channel for suppliers to reach end users, reducing the energy of intervening companies" (Michael. E Porter's Competitive strategy free press, 1980). Procurement and digital marketplaces have a tendency to give companies identical access to suppliers and to standardised products that lower variation.

Buyers bargaining ability of channels and end users

"Goes bargaining capacity to end customers" (Michael. E Porter's Competitive strategy free press, 1980). The clients have the bargaining electric power as they may have the choice to either purchase CD's from a store or download the tunes free of charge online.

From the examination above, the assumption is that the united kingdom music business is booming. The music industry is conquered by three big companies who've been around for several years and who operate great shares of the market. Making use of Porters five makes framework is tremendously significant in industry examination as it allows businesses to comprehend the overall elegance of the industry itself. However, you can say that the arrival of the internet has influenced the sales of CD's. The need to get a Disc with one melody onto it is no longer a necessity as possible just download the songs from the web. "Music piracy online is quite common, which affects designers and record product labels earnings. Anybody that has an internet connection can find illegal music downloads anywhere. Unsurprisingly the labels lose more income than the painters because the label keeps the majority of the money and the designer only sees a small percentage. It really is now easier for painters to self-promote and home -release nowadays with all the opportunities for advertising and promoting online. Therefore, maybe it's said that the development of the internet has reduced the music industry's performance.


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Olivia Boachie M00344084

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