Concepts of Working Capital and Short Term Finance


Working capital (abbreviated WC) is a financial metric which signifies operating liquidity open to a business, group, or other entity, including governmental entity. Along with set belongings such as place and equipment, working capital is considered an integral part of operating capital. World wide web working capital is determined as current possessions minus current liabilities.

Working Capital = Current Assets

Net Working Capital = Current Property Л†' Current Liabilities

Positive working capital is required to ensure that a firm is able to continue its businesses and that it has sufficient funds to satisfy both maturing short-term personal debt and upcoming functional expenditures. The management of working capital requires taking care of inventories, accounts receivable and payable and cash.


Working Capital Management is concerned with the problems that occur in attempting to manage the Current Resources, Current Liabilities and the inter-relationship that is out there between them.

Working Capital Management means the deployment of current assets and current liabilities proficiently to be able to increase short-term liquidity

Working capital management entails short term decisions - generally, associated with the next one year period - which is "reversible"

Two Steps involved in the Working Capital Management

- Forecasting the Amount of Working Capital

- Deciding the Resources of Working Capital



Short term WC financing is actually providing businesses cash for a brief term amount of annually or less. These funds are usually utilized by businesses to financing their WC requirements i. e. run their day-to-day functions including payment of pay to employees, inventory buying and supplies etc.


After establishment of your business, funds must meet its daily expenses. For instance recycleables must be purchased at regular intervals, staff must be paid income regularly, normal water and power charges have to be paid regularly. Thus there's a continuous requirement of liquid cash to be accessible for reaching these expenses. For financing such requirements short-term cash are needed. The option of short-term funds is essential. Inadequacy of short-term money could even lead to closure of business.

Short-term finance functions following purposes:

1. It helps the smooth jogging of business procedures by meeting day to day financial requirements.

2. It allows firms to carry stock of raw materials and finished product.

3. Along with the option of short-term financing goods can be sold on credit. Sales are for a certain period and assortment of money from debtors does take time. During this time gap, development continues and money will be needed to finance various functions of the business.

4. Short-term financing becomes more essential when it's necessary to raise the volume of creation at a brief notice.

5. Short-term cash are also necessary to allow stream of cash through the operating cycle. Functioning cycle identifies the time space between commencement of creation and realisation of sales.


There are a number of resources of short-term finance that happen to be the following

1. Trade credit

2. Bank or investment company credit

- Lending options and advances

- Cash credit

- Overdraft

- Discounting of bills

3. Customers' advances

4. Installment credit

5. Lending options from co-operatives


Trade credit identifies credit granted to companies and dealers by the suppliers of uncooked material, finished goods, components, etc. Usually business enterprises buy supplies on the 30 to 3 months credit. Which means that the goods are supplied but payments are not made until the expiry of amount of credit. This sort of credit will not make the funds available in cash but it helps purchases without making immediate repayment. This is quite a popular way to obtain finance.

2. Loan provider CREDIT

Commercial banks grant short-term finance to business companies that happen to be known as loan provider credit. When loan company credit is awarded, the borrower gets the right to draw the quantity of credit at onetime or in installments as so when needed. Lender credit may be granted through loans, cash credit, overdraft and low priced bills.


When a specific amount is advanced by a bank repayable following a specified period, it is known as mortgage. Such advance is acknowledged to another loan account and the borrower has to pay interest overall amount of loan irrespective of the quantity of loan actually drawn. Usually lending options are awarded against security of belongings.


It can be an arrangement whereby banks allow the debtor to withdraw money up to a specified limit. This limit is recognized as cash credit limit. Initially this limit is awarded for one yr. This limit can be extended after review for another calendar year. However, if the customer still really wants to continue the limit, it must be restored after 3 years. Interest varies depending after the quantity of limit.

Banks require guarantee security for the grant of cash credit. Within this arrangement, the debtor can draw, pay off and again get the total amount within the sanctioned limit. Interest is recharged only on the total amount actually withdrawn and not on the amount of whole limit.


When a loan company allows its depositors or members to withdraw profit excess of the balance in his consideration up to a given limit, it is recognized as overdraft facility. This limit is granted purely on the basis of credit-worthiness of the customer. Banks generally give the limit up to Rs. 20, 000. In this system, the borrower has to show a confident balance in his account on the previous Friday of every month. Interest is billed only on the overdrawn money. Interest in case there is overdraft is significantly less than the rate priced under cash credit.


Banks also progress money by discounting charges of exchange, promissory records and hundies. When these documents are presented before the standard bank for discounting, banks credit the total amount to customer's bank account after deducting discount. The quantity of discount is add up to the amount of interest for the time of invoice. This part has been reviewed in detail down the road in this chapter.


Sometimes businessmen insist on their customers to make some move forward payment. It is generally asked when the value of order is quite large or things purchased are extremely costly. Customers' progress represents a part of the repayment towards price on the merchandise (s) which is delivered at a later time. Customers generally consent to make advances when such goods aren't easily available on the market or there can be an urgent need of goods. A company can meet its short-term requirements with the help of customers' innovations.


Installment credit is now-a-days a popular source of money for consumer goods like television set, refrigerators as well as for industrial goods. You might be aware of this system. Only a little amount of money is paid at the time of delivery of such articles. The total amount is paid in several installments. The dealer charges interest for stretching credit. The amount of interest is included while considering on the amount of installment. Another comparable system is the seek the services of purchase system under which the buyer becomes owner of the goods after the repayment of previous installment. Sometimes commercial lenders also grant installment credit if they have suitable plans with the suppliers.

5. Lending options FROM CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

Co-operative banks are a good source to procure short-term funding. Such banks have been established at local, region and condition levels. District Cooperative Banks will be the federation of primary credit societies. The State Cooperative Bank money and regulates the Area Cooperative Banks in the state of hawaii. They are also governed by Reserve Bank of India laws. A few of these lenders like the Vaish Co-operative Bank was initially established as a co-operative modern culture and later changed into a standard bank. These finance institutions grant lending options for personal as well as business purposes. Account is the principal condition for securing loan. The functions of these banks are mainly much like the functions of commercial finance institutions.


a) Economical : Financing for short-term purposes can be set up at a brief notice and will not require any cost of elevating. The amount of interest payable is also affordable. It is, thus, relatively more economical to improve short-term funding.

b) Overall flexibility: Loans to meet short-term financial need can be brought up as and when required. These can be repaid if not necessary. This provides flexibility.

c) No interference in general management: The lenders of short-term finance cannot hinder the management of the borrowing concern. The management keeps their independence in decision making.

d) May also serve long-term purposes: Generally business organizations keep on renewing short-term credit, e. g. , cash credit is granted for one yr but it could be expanded up to 3 years with twelve-monthly review. After 3 years it can be renewed. Thus, resources of short-term funding may sometimes provide funds for long-term purposes.


a) Set Burden: Like all borrowings interest must be paid on short-term loans irrespective of profit or loss earned by the company. That is why business companies use short-term funding only for momentary purposes.

b) Charge on investments: Generally short-term funding is raised on the basis of security of moveable property. When this happens the borrowing matter cannot raise further loans against the security of the assets nor can these be sold until the loan is cleared (repaid).

c) Difficulty of boosting financing: When business companies suffer intermittent loss of huge amount or market demand is declining or industry is recession, it loses its creditworthiness. In such circumstances they find it difficult to borrow from banks or other resources of short-term finance.

d) Uncertainty: In cases of crisis business firms always face the uncertainty of securing money from resources of short-term money. If the quantity of fund required is large, it is also more uncertain to obtain the finance.

e) Legal formalities: Sometimes certain legal formalities should be complied with for bringing up funding from short-term sources. If shares should be transferred as security, then transfer deed must prepare yourself. Such formalities take lot of the time and create whole lot of problems.




A - Amount of operating cycle

a. Procurement of natural materials

b. Conversion/process time

c. Average time of keeping FG

d. Average collection period

e. Operating Routine (a + b + c + d)

f. Operating cycle in a yr (360/e)

B - Total operating bills per annum

C - Working Capital Need ( B/f)


(Applicable for boundaries up to Rs. 6 crores)

A. Sales Turnover

B. 25% of sales turnover

C. 5% of sales turnover projected as margin

D. Actual NWC existing as per previous financial statement

E. B - C

F. B - D

G. MBPF ( E or F whichever is less)

H. Additional margin to be brought in ( C - D )


Cash inflow - Cash outflow = Loan company finance in the form of working capital

Months 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Cash receipts(1)

Cash payments(2)

Suplus/Deficit( 1 - 2)

Peak deficit is financed and drawings are controlled by monthly finances.



Like many other activities of the bankers, method and quantum of short-term money that can be granted to a corporate was mandated by the Reserve Lender of India till 1994. This control was exercised on the lines recommended by the tips of a study group going by Shri Prakash Tandon. The study group going by Shri Prakash Tandon, the then Chairman of Punjab National Loan provider, was constituted by the RBI in July 1974 with eminent personalities drawn from leading lenders, finance institutions and a broad cross-section of the Industry with a view to review the whole gamut of Bank's funding for working capital and suggest ways for most effective utilisation of Standard bank credit. This was the first intricate look at by the central loan provider to organise the Bank credit. The article of this group is well known as Tandon Committee statement.

As per the suggestions of Tandon Committee, the corporates should be discouraged from accumulating too much of companies of current belongings and should move towards very trim inventories and receivable levels. The committee even advised the maximum degrees of Raw Materials, Stock-in-process and Finished Goods which a commercial operating in an industry should be allowed to build up These levels were termed as inventory and receivable norms. With regards to the size of credit required, the money of these current assets (working capital needs) of the corporates could be achieved by one of the following methods

FIRST APPROACH TO LENDING: Banks can work out the working capital difference, i. e. total current belongings less current liabilities other than loan company borrowings (called Maximum Permissible Standard bank Fund or MPBF) and financing no more than 75 % of the distance; the total amount to emerge from long-term money, i. e. , possessed cash and term borrowings. This approach was considered appropriate only for really small borrowers i. e. where the requirements of credit were significantly less than Rs. 10 lacs

Total Current Assets

- Total Current Liabilities

= Working Capital Gap

- 25% from long-term sources


SECOND METHOD OF LENDING :Under this technique, it was thought that the customer should give a minimum of 25% of total current possessions out of long-term cash i. e. , managed cash plus term borrowings. A certain degree of credit for buys and other current liabilities will be accessible to invest in the build up of current possessions and the lender will provide the total amount (MPBF). Subsequently, total current liabilities including bank borrowings could not go over 75% of current possessions. RBI stipulated that the working capital needs of all borrowers enjoying fund founded credit facilities of more than Rs. 10 lacs should be appraised (calculated) under this technique.

Total Current Assets

- 25% from long-term sources

= Online Current Assets

- Total Current Liabilities


THIRD APPROACH TO Loaning: Under this technique, the borrower's contribution from permanent funds will be to the scope of the whole CORE CURRENT Property, which includes been defined by the analysis Group as representing the definite minimum degree of recycleables, process stock, done goods and stores which can be in the pipeline to ensure continuity of creation and a minimum of 25% of the total amount current belongings should be financed from the long term money plus term borrowings.

Total Current Assets

- Primary Current Assets

= Net WC Current Assets

- 25% from permanent sources

= Online Current Assets

- Total Current Liabilities


# Notice: Total Current Liabilities means Liabilities excluding Bank Borrowings to be studied into account for Calculation

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