According to Sassen et al. global places have become significantly important in the last ages because of major changes in the macro-economic landscape. Among these major changes is the ascendance of information technology and the associated increase in the freedom and liquidity of capital. Cross-border economical operations such as flows of capital, labor, goods, raw materials and tourists, have already existed for a long period. These processes, however, mainly used to occur in the inter-state system. The main element actors in this technique were national areas and the entire international system was inlayed in this inter-state system. Due to privatization, deregulation, the opening up of nationwide economies to overseas companies, and the growing participation of national financial celebrities in global markets the nationwide as a spatial unit has partly been unbundled or at least been weakened. This weakening has resulted in the emergence of other spatial devices or scales. Among these are the sub-national, notably places and locations; cross-border regions encompassing two or more sub-national entities; and supra-national entities, i. e. global digitalized marketplaces and free trade blocs. Sassen states that the changes in the macro-economic environment, that happen to be discussed earlier, have led to the introduction of global towns.
Difference global vs world cities
Sassen highlights that she knowingly has chosen the term global city, rather than the obvious substitute, world city. She has done this because the word world city identifies a kind of city which has been around for centuries. Sassen states that almost all of today's global places are also world towns, but there may well be some global cities today that are not world locations in the full, rich sense of this term. We will elaborate on the world city later, whenever we discuss John Friedman's work.
Sassen's Global City Model
The goal of my thesis is to learn what global-city characteristics induce MNCs to choose a certain global city as the positioning for their headquarters. To be able to fully have the ability to answer this question it's important that I focus on explaining what a global city exactly is. The explanation I provide is dependant on Saskia Sassen's global city model, her model involves seven hypotheses and I'll explain these briefly.
First, globalization evokes the geographical diffusion of economical activities and combined with the simultaneous integration of such geographically diffused activities, this is a primary factor which induces the progress and need for central corporate functions. When a firm's operations are more dispersed across different countries, the firm's central functions become appropriately more complex and tactical.
Second, since these central functions become this intricate, the head office of MNCs are more plus more reliant on outsourcing: they buy a talk about with their central functions from highly professional service organizations - accounting, legal, public relations, programming, telecommunication and other such services. While, recently, the key site for the production of the central headquarter functions was the headquarter itself, nowadays a second key site has arisen. Although this is particularly the case for firms involved in global marketplaces and non-routine operations, all headquarters of large businesses are buying more of such inputs somewhat than producing them in-house.
Third, the increasing demand for specialized services contributes to a new agglomeration active. The metropolitan environment functions - due to the presence of a mix of firms, talents, and experience from a wide range of specialised areas - as an information middle. Being in a city becomes synonymous with being in an extremely and dense information loop.
Sassen's fourth hypothesis is derived from the prior one. She declares that the more head office outsource their most complex, unstandardized functions, the freer these are to choose any location. This is actually the circumstance since less work that is performed in the head office is subject to agglomeration economies. This means that once again that the highly specialised and networked services sector is the main element sector specifying the distinctive creation features of global places. While developing this hypothesis Sassen was giving an answer to a very common notion, the actual fact that the quantity of headquarters is exactly what specifies a worldwide city. In many countries it could still be the case that the country's leading business center also offers the largest attentiveness of headquarters. In some countries however, there are multiple locational options for such head office, since we find well-developed infrastructure beyond the key business centre.
Hypothesis five state governments that the special service firms, present in global towns, need to construct a transnational servicing network. This network consists of affiliate marketers or other varieties of partnerships, therefore of this there has been a building up of cross border city-to-city orders and networks. This might be seen as the start of the forming of transnational metropolitan systems. Due to this hypothesis is the actual fact that the distance between the financial fortune of these connected global places and the economical fortune of the hinterland and their nationwide economies becomes much larger. Nowadays these transnational networks are of great importance for the major business centers of the world. In prospect to the, Sassen states that there surely is no such thing as an individual global city.
Sassen's sixth hypothesis state governments that there has been a increase in the degree of socio-economic inequality in global metropolitan areas. This raise is caused by the growing quantity of high-level specialists and high income making specialised service firms present in global locations. Since professional services have gained significantly in importance, the value of top level professionals and their quantity has risen. The quality of these services depends to a big scope on the ability of the employees who perform these services, this makes proven ability an added value. This means that workers who have got of these features experience rapid rises in their reward structure and personnel who do not have got of these traits will probably get found in the opposite cycle. This is the cause of the growing level of inequality in global towns.
A seventh hypothesis, is that one consequence of the dynamics identified in hypothesis six, is the growing informalization of a variety of economic activities which find their effective demand in these towns, yet have profit rates that don't allow them to remain competitive for various resources with the high-profit making businesses at the top of the machine. A possible solution, to be able to survive under these conditions, is informalizing part of or all production and distribution activities.
The role of improvements in communication technology
Globalized economic sectors have a tendency to be intense users of the new telecommunications and computer technologies, moreover, the output these sectors produce is becoming increasingly de-materialize. This boosts a question concerning if they should reap the benefits of agglomeration economies. Sassen highlights the growing facts that networks are an essential variable that is to be distinguished from specialized networks. Even before the current technologies were developed, these business networks were crucial. The business networks we've mentioned benefit significantly from agglomeration economies and hence thrive in locations right now when simultaneous global communication is possible.
Firms with large numbers of geographically dispersed factories and service outlet stores come across new needs for central coordination and servicing. This implies a active of simultaneous geographic dispersal and attentiveness and this active is one of the key elements in the organizational structures of the global economic system. Indeed, the key financial centers inside countries concentrate a greater talk about of national financial activity than even a decade ago. This is an unexpected development for a globalized and digitized monetary sector. This evolution is brought on by the actual fact that national and global market segments as well as globally included organizations require central places where the work of globalization gets done. In order to implement and control global economical systems, finance and advanced corporate and business services are would have to be produced. The most well-liked sites for the production of these services are locations. Further, the companies who produce these services desire a physical infrastructure including strategic nodes with hyper-concentration of facilities. Finally, Sassen states that even the development process of the most advanced information industries reaches least partly place-bound since their creation process requires a combo of resources even though their outputs are hypermobile.
The changes in communication technology havent only influenced the degree of amount of financial activity, they also have altered the role of centrality and therefore of metropolitan areas as financial entities. Formerly, the center was synonymous with the downtown or Central Business Area. Because of new communication technology, this is no more the situation. Nowadays what is seen as the center can believe several geographic forms, which range from the CBD to a fresh global grid of places. Sassen states that today you can see centrality in three different varieties. First, however the CBD has been transformed by economic and technological change, it remains a kind of centrality with great importance. Second, the center can lengthen into a metropolitan area by means of a grid of nodes of extreme business activity. The nodes in this grid are both linked by cyber-routes and much more conventional types of communications infrastructure, such as rail and highways hooking up to airports. These standard infrastructures will probably maximize the monetary advantages which follow from the new communication technologies. Finally, through telematics and powerful economic ventures, transterritorial "centers" are being constituted, meaning that the major international financial and business centers are associated at the inter-urban level.
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