Factors That Determine Demand And Supply


The market in our choice is the air travel industry in Malaysia. The main commercial airline companies in Malaysia contain Air Asia, Malaysia Flight System Berhad (MAS), Firefly, a subgroup of MAS, Berjaya Air and a few other smaller companies in East Malaysia.

Factors that determine demand and supply

Price is a major factor that performs a component in determining the demand and supply of air travel services. Soaring is an extravagance service, which means it is a form of travelling that is costlier and is usually sought after by consumers with a larger amount of expendable income (WebFinance, 2013). Thus, the demand for this service is elastic, meaning it's very very sensitive to changes in cost.

Of late, we have witnessed an abrupt increase in the number of low-cost carriers in the last few years such as Air Asia and Firefly. However, research has shown there's a conflicting romantic relationship between price elasticities nowadays. On one hand, passengers are becoming more delicate to price, brought on by the influx of low priced travel, transparency due to the web and powerful competition from unregulated marketplaces. Alternatively, travellers are less sensitive to changes in price as the revenue generated from solution sales become less significant in the full total cost of the journey (Smyth & Pearce, 2008). Both explanations for this are; firstly, the components of the journey can be easily substituted, such as routes, modes, airlines, etc. Therefore, the genuine price elasticity of flights may be greater than the advised price elasticity of the entire cost of the quest. Passengers make a decision regarding their air travel destination by first weighing the price tag on air travel and then only the other costs incurred by the quest (Smyth & Pearce, 2008).

Another factor that performs a part in deciding the demand for flight services is the income of the consumers. Research has discovered that flights income elasticities were consistently positive (Smyth & Pearce, 2008). This means that the demand for the good or service increase when the income of consumers increase, recommending that consumers are prepared to allocate a larger share of the income to luxury expenses such as air travel. Furthermore, if the country has a growing overall economy, the responsiveness of the passengers is greater, showing that long-distance journeys have higher income elasticities. This suggests that lower to middle income households tend to be inclined to brief haul routes whereas higher income homeowners prefer long haul routes (Smyth & Pearce, 2008).

In addition, the price of related goods in the flight industry also affects the demand and supply of airplane tickets. A rise in the price of a complementary good would bring about a subsequent upsurge in the price of airplane seat tickets, thus minimizing the demand for it. Another related good, known as substitutes are two goods that can be used in place of each other (Mankiw, 2008). If we identify the market narrowly, then there are a lot of available substitutes, thus making the demand elastic. If we explain it broadly, then airplanes have little or no close substitutes.

Furthermore, the number of buyers in market also influences the price of airplane tickets. A lot more buyers in the market would result in an overall increased demand for aircraft tickets and for that reason, an increase in the quantity supplied by air travel companies.

Besides, time period also plays a role in influencing demand elasticities. The longer the period of time, the more elastic the demand, as consumers have a longer time to adjust their habit to the purchase price.

Changes in Trends of Price & The way the Determinants Affect the marketplace Price and Variety Traded

The price of a particular good or service is derived by the interaction between supply and demand. The marketplace price that results is completely dependent of these two very essential and important the different parts of a market. When customers and sellers likewise both agree on a price, an exchange of goods or services will occur, and this arranged after price will be called the 'equilibrium price'.

When either demand or source changes, the equilibrium price changes. For instance, cheaper fuel costs normally escalates the supply of aircraft tickets, with more products being offered over a range of prices. With no increase in the amount of product demanded, there will be movement along the demand curve to a new equilibrium price to be able to clear the excess supplies off the market. Consumers will buy more but only at less price. This is illustrated in Amount 3.

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In the truth of the air travel industry, the changes of tendencies of price of air travel tickets are determined by factors such as competition on way, couch demand, distance of road, seat source, and fuel costs. According to the Wall Street Journal's Market Watch, the average price of air travel for international flights travelled up 23 percent between 2009 and 2010. Local ticket prices in america also rose 15 percent within the same period. Prices are anticipated to keep increasing in the foreseeable future. These fluctuations were blamed on the rising prices of fuel and the global economic crisis that were only available in 2008.

Fuel cost is one of the primary determinants of price developments in the airline industry. As the gross price of crude petrol rises, so does the price tag on soaring and the airline's costs. The general world oil problems is a huge determinant as petrol can be an exhaustive material. Olive oil is a complement of airplanes and for that reason there's a direct relationship between your engine oil prices and demand for flight tickets.

Likewise a move in demand due to changing consumer preferences will also effect the marketplace price. Lately there's been a shift in demand for tourist flight tickets to Japan, that was due to the recent damaging earthquake. A drop in the choice for flight tickets to Japan shifts the demand curve inward, left, as illustrated in body 4.

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Another factor that affects airline ticket prices is the global economic slowdown. Since companies don't make very much revenue as before, they have to cut down the costs in order to attain the same income. However, it is not only the price aspect that triggers a decline in air travel, but also the actual fact that due with an economic slowdown, there is not a whole lot business occurring anymore. This can be seen through the Asian Financial Crisis of the past due 90's, whereby it helped bring down the quantity of people travelling to and from Asian countries.

How and why the federal government intervenes

The federal intervenes in the air travel industry by handling the spots of the airline flight routes. Air Asia and Malaysia Airline Services (MAS), the most well-known flight companies in Malaysia have different flight routes as the various destinations of these firms need the support from the government to journey to a specific country. For instance, MAS with the support of the Malaysian authorities will approach Singapore Airlines to make a direct journey from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore as the demand is high. Hence, because of the strong diplomatic tie between the two government authorities, Singapore airlines will recognize as it helps both countries' economic development as well as their travel and leisure industry. This pertains to other routes from different countries as well.

The administration also implements fees in the price of plane tickets. Generally, tax is applied to discourage a certain market activity. However, in this industry the need of soaring is high. Hence, the small percentage of the duty execution done by the federal government will not make much difference popular but, consumers always think at a margin. They make decisions predicated on price. As this industry is elastic, consumers have a tendency to look for other close substitutes that are relatively cheaper.

To intervene in a market where there is reason to believe that market prices are slightly unfair to purchasers and sellers, the federal government may choose to enforce certain regulations to stabilize prices or bring them to a desired level. These guidelines are nearly always properly organized by professional economists with the objective of creating the optimum economy.

Policies enacted by the government to regulate prices by creating a price ceiling would encourage more people to take advantage of today's technological improvements. An example would be rent control policies by inserting price ceilings on the rent that landlords are allowed to charge. Through this policy, the expected goal of making housing less expensive to help the indegent was achieved. However, it is the truth that policymakers do not achieve the expected goal. Producing a price roof would be attractive but it generally does not guarantee an increase in sales.


The air travel industry in Malaysia is a dynamic industry that is affected by the various factors of demand and offer in different degrees. There is no hard and fast rule when it comes to analysing each factor as this industry is ever evolving and growing.

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