Global Forces AS WELL AS THE European Brewing Industry


To expose an analysis of the brewery industry, one point must be underlined: the Western european brewery market is adult, which is essential to comprehend its trends and its own forces. We are actually going to utilize the Porter's style of the Five Causes analysis to build up this analysis. First of all, consolidation is a key style in the brewery industry. It offers consequences achieving into economies of level and into the access to supply or distribution stations. Actually, it is more difficult to enter a market when there are significant leaders, which have the ability to develop a competitive production on the main one hand and also to pressure supply and distribution channel on the other palm. As the five largest global brewers accounted for 30% of production amount in 2002, we can suppose that there are entry barriers de facto. Even in the united kingdom, the recent independency of the general public house chains does not contradict this tendency since it causes the brewing businesses to become more competitive, which is simpler for an existent organization than for a new one.

Question1 (i)


Though the average ratio is usually regarded as 4. 5% alcoholic beverages by level (ABV), this is however, not sacrosanct and could vary according to style, taste and preference across regions. Ale forms a fundamental element of many ethnicities and can be used as a lifestyle drink if consumed reasonably and under limitation. Nevertheless, excess consumption of the same is likely to lead to various unremitting diseases.

As students of legislation and management, we've assumed the task of analyzing an instance on European making industry, impacted by several global trend, namely, Global Makes and European Making Industry.

As a consequence of these changes, the evaluation of the external environment has become a key activity within the procedure of creating strategy. An understanding of the type of the surroundings is important, as is a familiarity with the tools and frameworks of evaluation. The capability to understand the impact of the external environment upon a business will not guarantee proper success, but to ignore the exterior environment is highly more likely to make failure a definite possibility. The large selection of potential influences on an organization and their conversation, make the job of assessing the overall environment particularly difficult. In addition, each organization is affected in various ways by changes in the environment. Factors that have a substantial impact after one organization will have little effect on another.

Using PESTEL analysis can help highlight the biggest influences on the strategy of the business, both presently and in the future. These influences can be both positive and negative. In addition, influences often cross the divide between the six headings; the important point is that they seem anywhere in the examination. The key is to identify and concentrate upon those factors or trends likely to have the largest impact upon the continuing future of the organization.

PESTEL (Political; Economic; Sociable; Technological; Environmental; Legal) evaluation provides a organized way of analyzing the business environment. It could permit us to

Summarize the most crucial influences of the business environment;

Evaluate the actual impact of the influences on the organization.


From the case study we notice the political intervention of the federal government that made strict prosecutions against drunken travelling and the liquor misuse through sensitization campaigns to create awareness of the effects of liquor on our health. Other measures such as the prohibition of the sales of alcoholic drinks in public areas this initiative taken by the government were one of the reason why that changed the buying behaviour of European market that is the land in the sales of beer in these countries. Though would be categorized under the top of social examination the government has induced in the buying behaviour. In the late nineties many constraints were put on the brewing sectors such as the use of cans in Denmark. Also in Germany local development regulations like the "Reinheitsgebot" were presented to regulate the making industry in this country. In those days European countries is moving towards becoming a single market with a stable political environment.


The results that the market has on the brewing industry are that there have been different patterns of industry amount across countries as a result of different financial advantages that these business were enjoying such as cheap labour and quality raw materials at a cheaper price. Of these times acquisitions, licensing and proper alliances have all occurred as the best brewers battle to control the market. There were a growing development towards cross-borders mergers and acquisitions. Finally there were low growth in the consumption of beers which made the sales fall drastically in certain European countries including the beer usage in Germany between 2002 and 2003. The EMU has reduced rates of interest hence; Spanish companies can now gain access to the same interest levels as German companies, compared to four years back when they paid 4. 5 percentage factors more in interest than German companies. This creates an even playing field for all those Western european companies seeking usage of capital.


The sensitisation campaign made by the federal government has created growing concerns about health issues and drink-driving this is one of the main explanations why the sales of beers have fallen in the Europe. There was an increasing acceptance of low alcoholic refreshments that is why people turned from beer to wine to lessen the excessive alcoholic beverages intake in pubs and golf clubs. The off-trade German vendors like the Aldi and the Lidi have emphasized on the value of supermarkets in the distribution and the expansion with their own-label brand beers rather than the brewery-branded beers and in other parts of the world there was an increasing popularity of Western brands. Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic have young populations with a desire for all things European.


From the case we are able to recognize that technology had brought in efficiency and improved production. Technology experienced definitely helped in obtaining information and got helped in a variety of departments. However as a result of incessant research and development the creation devices not only could actually obtaining the economies of range but also over produced. This actually motivated players to find the market. The web has redefined the idea of business, and has pressured every organisation to look at just how it works. Also increased efficiency in production from new technologies has brought down unit costs, giving greater manufacturers huge economies of level. Successful companies will will have to hit a balance between your causes of globalisation and the necessity to maintain an area focus on each market.


The environmental impact on the Western european brewery industry is the fact that the existing pressure on European countries from America and Australia to reduce agriculture subsidies could bring about a big change in the industry's uncooked material supply foundation would increase the costs of raw materials. Also the drought has influenced the raw materials which come from Australia which includes created a show up in the supply of the recycleables.


The legal aspect is the fact that lot of Mergers and Actuations are taking place which displays that we now have low restrictions with regard to consolidation of European brewery. For example in the United Kingdom the government set up competition legislation including the 1989 Monopolies and Mergers Payment (MMC) to have a control over the mergers and the take-overs occurring in the United Kingdom.

Question 1(ii)

According to Porter, whether an industry produces a product or something, or whether it is global or domestic in opportunity, competition depends on five pushes.

the risk of new entrants;

the lifetime of substitute products or services;

the bargaining vitality of suppliers;

the bargaining electricity of customers or customers;

existing rivalry within the industry;

These five causes determine the best profit potential of an industry as a whole. Within an industry, individual organizations who develop particular strengths might be able to gain competitive benefit whatever the income position of the industry as a whole is

The ultimate strength of competition within an industry will depend on the collective durability of these causes: sometimes one will dominate; often it's a collection of several.

To understand which of these forces may very well be most crucial means looking into the root structural conditions that underpin them.

Assessing each one of the competitive forces subsequently, by identifying the structural factors which are significant in each circumstance will allow a knowledge of the dynamics of the industry (its primary economics). As well as providing an information into dynamics of the industry, this approach also allows specific companies to understand the directions that they face the greatest competitive pressures - and tailor their ways of meet these stresses.

Threat to new entrants;

New entrants in an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby lowering its elegance. The hazards to new entrants essentially be based upon the barriers to accessibility. High entry obstacles exist in some market sectors whereas in other market sectors are incredibly easy to go into. This plan would prevent competitors from countries like Japan and the USA to come in the industry and contend with firms from the region. Profitable market segments that yield high returns will draw companies. This results in many new entrants, which eventually will lower profitability. Unless the accessibility of new organizations can be clogged by incumbents, the profit rate will fall towards a competitive level (perfect competition).

The life of obstacles to entry (patents, protection under the law, etc. )The best attractive section is one where entry barriers are high and leave obstacles are low. Few new organizations can get into and non-performing firms can leave easily.

Economies of product differences

Brand equity

Switching costs or sunk costs

Capital requirements

Access to distribution

Customer loyalty to founded brands

Absolute cost advantages

Learning curve advantages

Expected retaliation by incumbents

Government policies

Industry profitability; the greater profitable the industry the more attractive it will be to new competitor

Threat of substitutes

The presence of the alternative products can lower industry appeal and success as they limit price levels. When the federal government passed polices on alcohol consumption drinks in public areas many people switched from beer to wine beverage and other drinks like coca- cola that have become replacement of ale. Also when campaigns were made on the effects of alcohol on health many people have implemented other leisure pursuits like jogging. The lifestyle of products beyond the realm of the common product boundaries escalates the propensity of customers to change to alternatives

Buyer propensity to substitute

Relative price performance of substitute

Buyer transitioning costs

Perceived level of product differentiation

Number of substitute products available in the market

Ease of substitution. Information-based products are definitely more prone to substitution, as online product can easily replace material product.

Substandard product

Quality depreciation

Power of suppliers

Suppliers will be the businesses that supply materials and other products to the industry. The items bought from the suppliers (recycleables, components) have a substantial effect on a company's success. On this industry the suppliers have little electricity because they might be small farmers and packaging companies. The bargaining power of suppliers is also referred to as the market of inputs. Suppliers of recycleables, components, labor, and services (such as expertise) to the organization can be considered a source of ability over the organization, when there are few substitutes. Suppliers may won't work with the firm, or, e. g. , fee excessively high prices for unique resources.

Supplier turning costs relative to firm turning costs

Degree of differentiation of inputs

Impact of inputs on cost or differentiation

Presence of substitute inputs

Supplier attention to firm attention ratio

Employee solidarity (e. g. labor unions)

Supplier competition - capacity to forward vertically assimilate and lower out the buyer

4) Electric power of buyers

The bargaining vitality of customers is also referred to as the marketplace of outputs: the ability of customers to put the firm under great pressure, which also influences the customer's sensitivity to price changes.

Buyer focus to firm attentiveness ratio

Degree of dependency upon existing channels of distribution

Bargaining leverage, especially in companies with high set costs

Buyer volume

Buyer switching costs in accordance with firm turning costs

Buyer information availability

Ability to backward integrate

Availability of existing alternative products

Buyer price sensitivity

Differential advantages (uniqueness) of industry products

RFM Analysis

5) The power of competitive rivalry

For most industries, the depth of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry.

Sustainable competitive advantages through development.

Competition between online and offline companies; click-and-mortar -v- brick-and-mortar

Level of advertising expenditure.

Powerful competitive strategy

The presence of proprietary items on the Web

It utilized by an organization which can intensify competitive pressures on their competitors. How will competition react to a certain habit by another firm? Competitive rivalry may very well be based on measurements such as price, quality, and creativity. Technological developments protect companies from competition. This applies to products and services. Companies that are successful with launching new technology have the ability to ask for higher prices and achieve higher revenue, until competitors imitate them. Types of recent technology benefit in have been the arrival of new experience in those sectors. Vertical integration is a strategy to reduce a business' own cost and thus intensify pressure on its rival.


Industry restructuring between existing rivals and the growing ability of the supermarkets are probably the key competitive forces in the industry at the moment. Whilst some stresses are best realized on a skillet- Western european level, lots of the structural conditions change between countries - distribution set ups and industry focus being two major factors. So need to use the 5 pushes Platform both at a pan-European level and at the level of individual countries to get a complete understanding. This example of differences between your pan- Western european level and specific countries highlights the necessity of understanding how the framework is to be used. This question has discussed lots of frameworks and techniques you can use to examine the external environment facing a particular company or understand the dynamics of competition within particular companies or marketplaces.

Question 2(a)

Heineken (the Netherlands)

Firstly Heineken from holland has the majority of its sales in the Western region. That's the reason Heineken is the most significant European brewery business and the world's fourth greatest brewery company. It can be seen from stand 1 that the sales of beer in the Netherlands have dropped between 2001 and2002 as a result of adoption of the several guidelines of the European government such as the legislation of alcohol drinking and the launch of the monopolies and the mergers payment. On the other hand it can be seen that though this business is the Netherlands, the majority of its products can be purchased in the Europe as the imports of beer has increased for holland (from3. 2% to 14. 4%). Also it can be seen that the business has been incurring more charges for its packaging which has risen by 11%. This is because the presentation and components such as cans and a glass bottles. On a single wavelength, it can be said that the majority of Heineken sales is in the neighboring countries.

Grolsch (holland)

Secondly Grolsch from the Netherlands has half of its sales from abroad and the spouse in holland with the advantages of its two differentiated products. Grolsch's sales have been very much affected because the UK's market is one of its main markets and there the sales have fallen greatly between 1980 and2001. It has showed up because countries like the UK were turning off-beer with many European countries. Moreover, the procedures of the government against "binge drinking" in the united kingdom to stop excessive alcohol use in pubs and clubs have made people turn from beer to wine. Also it can be seen that the sales of Grolsch may not have increased greatly as the UK has brought in only with 2% increase from2002 to 2004.

InBev (Belgium/brazil)

Thirdly InBev from the Belgium and Brazil is a merger of two companies which contain the first place of the world's top 10 brewery companies. The corporation is reputed for becoming the world's major company through acquisitions and mergers, thus company focuses on mainly the mass market from the several countries which it is leading. The corporation is world's major one because it has varied its activities in many countries of the world where in fact the consumption of beverage continued increasing rather than the European countries which were either steady or increased just a bit. Also in table2 it can be seen that from a variety of countries the imports of beverage has increased for all the countries as off-trade and on-trade demand for beverage kept on increasing. However, it could be seen that the second major brewer which is the American Anheuser-Busch, has made some acquisitions in china, Mexico and European countries to compete against InBev.

Scottish and Newcastle (UK)

Finally Scottish and Newcastle from the united kingdom is a European-focused brewing group based in Edinburgh. This company has quite well varied its activities with five types of beers. Though it isn't among the world's top10 brewery company, it is the market leader in the UK, France and Russia. This is actually the company that maybe has been most influenced by the policies adopted by the UK to avoid the excessive abuse of alcoholic drinks. Also the off-trade in the united kingdom is progressively dominated by large and famous supermarkets in the UK such as Tesco and Carrefour, which often use cut-price offers on ale in order to lure people to their shops. One fifth of the beverage volume is currently sold through supermarkets. However, now many sellers have arranged their own-label brand somewhat than offering other brands. Finally it could be seen that the demand is inclined towards the intake of high-priced premium products.

Question 2 (b)

Heineken (the Netherlands)


Heineken is the Western european biggest brewery. This business is a family group controlled company that allows total participation of the family as they would be eager to start to see the success of the business as they are committed to it. This insurance policy gives the business steadiness and independence for growth. That's decisions are created quickly as all the inner stake holders of the business would want the success of the business enterprise. Also consultation is made speedily as the family think on a single wavelength. This company has obtained many abroad companies to create and disperse throughout the country the products of Heineken. As the corporation is a huge one, it has the latest technology and the required expertise to produce beer. This company has strengthened its others by adding at their disposal the technology and expertise required.


The company has a whole lot of inefficiency in its activities because there are overcapacities within the industry. That is why the company is producing so much so it has exceeded its optimum output and is experiencing diseconomies of scale. This has given go up to inefficiency as well as the costs kept on increasing. The company should review its strategies concerning the production to become more efficient and also to keep your charges down. Another weakness is usually that the strategy implementation process is very low which is making them losing many opportunities. The portfolio of Heineken is not well varied that is why it is encountering problems as it concentrates only on the mass market. Now the business enterprise wants to focus on other industries of the market.

Grolsch (holland)


Its main durability is that it offers diversified its products by reselling differentiated products such as top quality lager and new-flavored beers. In holland Grolsch keeps the befitting the sales and the syndication of the valued US Miller brand. This company's products are well-known as fifty percent of the sales of the business is either through export or licensing of creation. Innovation and branding is main to the business's strategies. The business thinks that its strong and distinctive beers can flourish in market of increased homogenization. Its brands are reinforced by its impressive green bottles and its own unique swing-tops.


The first weakness is that in 2005, Grolsch centralized its production about the same new Dutch brewery to increase efficiency and volume level. This is considered to be a weakness because no person can guarantee exactly what will happen if the merchandise is a flop? All of the resources put for the creation will be squandered which will create inefficiency. The opening of a tiny "trial" brewery in order to support innovation may be looked at as a weakness because a large company like Grolsch can find other way to decide the success of services. This can be done through Research and Development which would decrease the utilization of resources.

InBev (Belgium/brazil)


Its main talents are that it is the largest brewer in the world and the market leader in a number of countries. The business wants to convert itself from the largest brewing company in the world to the best. This would be done by efficiency gains by the coordination of purchasing by enjoying the economies of range. Also such a company though may of progression are suffering from its guidelines which would be shared across sites internationally.


InBev is also con fronted to the condition of inefficiency because they have not place their level of optimal end result to identify between economies of scale and diseconomies of scale. The business desires to maximize its network meaning their networks aren't good with its other branches abroad. That is a weakness that would affect the business enterprise greatly as if the networking between your branches is difficult, then it might be very hard to know very well what is going on to the abroad branches.

Scottish and Newcastle (UK)


Its main power is that it's the fourth Western largest in size and the marketplace leader in the UK. Also it has diversified its profile well with five different products meaning if one of the merchandise fails, he success of a different one will help to cover the increased loss of the first one. The company emphasizes more the introduction of innovative and top quality beers meaning the business would diversify more its collection to possess this competitive gain over its rivals.


Its main weakness is the fact that the business through acquisitions and mergers has taken-over inefficient breweries which continue hampering the success of the business enterprise. However, the mergers with those companies have let its competition to adopt ways of be better opponents such as with China and the united states.

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