Global Logistics Opportunities and Challenges

Western Europe consists of UK, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Malta and microstates of Vatican City, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra and Liechtenstein. Western Europe is considered as major contributor of the European economy. Its identifying characteristics are normal currency, tax equalization, politics homogenization and expectations homogenization. Logistically speaking Western European markets provide a great chance of exploiting economies of the scale and size in moving goods throughout the Europe opting from a number of transportation methods. European transport systems have become because of deregulation of travel; shipments, optimal way and plan arranging, and the development of national services. The amount of long-distance transports is continuing to grow significantly with the major share of freight transports as street transports. The most well-liked modes of travelling in the area are streets and rails, strongly accompanied by sea freight. In addition, the 'Chunnel' links the UK with the rest of Europe reducing the travelling cost to a great extent. Source: ("DHL Discover Logistics, " n. d. -a)

The logistics systems in Traditional western Europe are characterized more by politics change associated with European union enlargement than by geographic features. In Western Europe transport, storage area, presentation and administrative jobs are becoming noticeably better due to uniform regulations. The travel networks are incredibly well developed but average shipping and delivery distances have grown principally in the wake of the Western Union's enhancement. Outsourcing activities are ever more affecting logistics in American European countries because companies no longer consider logistics to be a main business. Instead, greater distribution networks are producing at a rapid pace. Global businesses like vertical integration and go for direct marketing and syndication in order to reduce inventory and total logistics costs. The changes in the logistics sector have made problems of increased efficiency in shipping and delivery, product packaging and labelling. Here, the reduced amount of customs processing plays a critical role. In addition, technological advancements throughout Europe are almost consistent and not simply clustered in specific countries. As a result, order handling, inventory management, warehousing and IT technology are being further centralized. In nutshell, the competitive situation in Western Europe is powerful as compared to the others of Europe.

Japan has changed into an economic powerhouse of Asia and created a highly developed logistics system in spite of challenging geographic conditions. Similarly, such a system is necessary to offset japan islands insufficient raw materials. Alternatively, it's the foundation for expanding the positive progress of the export land. The country's main manufacturing and for that reason, logistics hub lies in a triangle surrounding the cities of Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka on the island of Honshu. Air move, in particular, plays an important role here. The most important means of freight travel in Japan are road transports and coastal shipping and delivery. Almost ninety percent of the carry is taken by vehicles. The role of rail transports is nearly non-existent. But this could change in the years ahead. A portion of sea freight has been shifted to air travel in recent years. Because of this move, international air transports on trans-Pacific routes have climbed tremendously.

Compared with other industrial countries, Japan's circulation system is very complex and inefficient resulting in high syndication costs. Most aspects of goods syndication Source: ("DHL Discover Logistics, " n. d. -b) in Japan is tightly regulated by the government. Joint circulation is typical; competition who make deliveries to the same businesses tend to use joint delivery capacities and vehicles. The logistics market in Japan is checking to international service providers which already are successfully fighting against Japanese companies in areas such as storage area, distribution and organic agreement logistics. The major logistics task is traffic congestion in metropolitan areas around the industrial hub. Just-in-time systems require small and recurrent shipments to meet customer requirements. The circulation system in Japanese market is characterised by non-store programs, transporting least inventory. It is helpful in producing services through email order, catalogue sales, and tele-shopping. Distributed syndication system is common amongst competitors. Uniform palletization can be used to avoid complicacy in businesses.

China

China's logistics market is checking gradually to the outside world. Logistics companies are reorganizing and integrating in the competitive environment. It really is increasingly more obvious that state managed, private owned and overseas funded companies are surviving and thriving in the competitive market segments. Together with the increasing demand of logistics, the logistics service for companies is changing from low value fundamental services to the high value added services. Logistics infrastructure, included logistics, traffic and transport, and delivery services provide huge investment opportunities. However, the related risks must be put into account, and firms should be mindful when choosing investment tasks.

Source: ("DHL Discover Logistics, " n. d. -c)

In some parts of China, credited to progress in technology, the street network now approaches Western standards. Modern freeways have been built in the Pearl River delta as well as in Shanghai and Beijing. Elements of this network lengthen far in to the country's interior however the requirements and quality of the road drops as we move from the cities particularly in the areas located from the urban centers. As a result of the underdeveloped infrastructure beyond your urban centers, logistics costs are saturated in an international context. In comparison to other means of carry, the rail network is nearly incorrect for logistics operations due to improperly built rail lines. For example, a container needs five days to quest by coach from Hong Kong to Shanghai ("DHL Discover Logistics, " n. d. -c). A travel by ship calls for about the same timeframe, but is a lot cheaper. Rail transports play a major role only in the shipment of bulk cargo like coal or iron ore. Because of this, rail transports are not particularly attractive to international companies for standard logistics functions.

The key troubles for the Chinese language logistics industry are

Poor infrastructure: inadequate integration of transfer networks, information technology (IT), warehousing and syndication facilities.

Regulation: exist at different tiers, imposed by national, local and local government bodies and often change from city to city, hindering the creation of nationwide networks.

Bureaucracy and Culture: companies need to generate links with politics agents at various levels. Furthermore, it is difficult to repatriate gains back to home country.

Poor training: in logistics sector and the developing and retailing sectors, both at a functional level, i. e. , IT, vehicles and warehouse as well as at a higher proper level.

Information and marketing communications technology: lack of IT expectations and poor systems integration and equipment. At a very basic level, there is no consistent way to obtain energy.

Undeveloped home industry: logistics sector is fragmented and dominated by commoditized and poor transfer and warehousing, unable to meet up with the growing supply chain demands for professional and commercial companies.

High travel costs: almost 50% more than Japan, European countries and North America, due mainly to high tolls on highways. Logistics costs (including warehousing, circulation, inventory keeping, order control, etc. ) are projected to be 2-3 times the normal.

Poor warehousing and safe-keeping: high loss, damage and deterioration of stock, especially in the perishables sector.

Regional imbalance: of goods moves from the developed east of the country to the more undeveloped west resulting in higher charges for haulage companies that happen to be then passed on to their clients.

Domestic trade barriers: besides lowered trade obstacles such as tariffs and quotas for international shipments, you may still find problems such as unofficial border tolls from an inland developing location to a port city or vice versa.

Commonwealth of 3rd party Areas (CIS) and Eastern Europe

Four out of fifteen previous Soviet Republics participate in CIS are in European countries: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova. Eastern Europe is made up of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Albania, and the Baltic state governments of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The countries of Eastern Europe occupy a strategically central position on the continent and are located at American Europe's user interface with Russia. As a result of the European Union's enlargement to the east, these are increasingly providing as a bridge. Because of this, many creation companies have relocated their creation facilities to Eastern Europe for cost reasons. Logistics service providers entered either pursuing these companies or even to exploit the new market segments by undertaking mergers or acquisitions. The opportunities for the firms interested in stepping into these markets change significantly from country to country. Although, these countries have relatively well toned transport networks nonetheless they do not meet western European standards. Regardless of the rapid progress of highway transports, railroads remain the dominant means of transport.

The Eastern European logistics market is seen as a wide regional variations. As the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary and Poland have made major strides, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia are trailing way back of. The infrastructure is within even worse condition farther to the east. The road-based freight transports have limited ability to meet up with the demands of European industry in an inexpensive manner. The sources of these constraints include traffic jams, the limited potential for expanding network capacity, rising energy costs and growing intermodal competition from railways. Eastern European harbours, particularly the major sea ports in Poland, perform a significant amount of trans-shipping and are being ever more expanded. The Western Union's enhancement and the increasing carry volumes have led to intensified storage space and syndication activities in the countries of Central and Eastern European countries. One of the major obstacles is to conquer the barriers that exist between Eastern and Western Europe, including the carry infrastructure.

Foreign Market Entrance Strategies

Foreign market access strategies are mainly classified into

Indirect exporting

Direct exporting

Manufacturing strategies

Cooperative strategies

Indirect Exporting

Piggybacking

An set up international distribution network of 1 manufacturer may be used to carry the products of a second company without such a network. The second manufacturer is reported to be piggybacking on the first in such cases. The first company comes with an proven reputation and associates in an international environment. It deals with the logistics and administration costs of exporting for the second manufacturer. Piggybacking will offer many advantages to firms; such as cheaper and fast access to new marketplaces, a recognised knowledge foot of the foreign marketplaces and economies of size in relation to administration, shipping and delivery, marketing and syndication. Piggybacking can lead to unsatisfactory marketing agreements such as lack of proper fit, providing tech support team, and after sales services for clients potentially leading to disagreement. This technique of exporting too is not well suited for creating a long-term overseas market occurrence.

Trading Companies

A trading company investments alone account. It executes many functions as; investing as a vendor, managing goods on consignment, or it may become a payment house for some buyers. Trading companies match retailers with buyers and deal with all the supportive functions such as export plans, paperwork, transportation, and legislative requirements. Firms in the beginning choose this function, because of TCs intensive contacts, experience, functions and long-term commercial relationships in many different trading regions in the world. After some experience in the international market, exporting companies want more control over decision making, so TCs aren't their long-term lovers.

Export Management Companies

Export Management Companies are specialist companies that become export department for a number of companies. They provide companies with usage of foreign purchasers, take purchases from those foreign buyers, purchase done products, and deal with the transporting and distribution of the goods in the foreign market. Their primary competency is at export logistics and handles the necessary records and extensive understanding of purchasing routines and government polices in the foreign markets. This is a less high-risk and fast penetration strategy suited to new entrants in the international market in the short-term. Disadvantages of EMCs include; export strategy conflict among both parties, lack of manufacturer's control over international market decisions and market knowledge. Due to expertise in exporting, the EMC has complete control total foreign market decisions. Furthermore, EMC could even export products that are in immediate competition with each other. Therefore, manufacturers need to devote resources to monitoring the performance of your EMC and spend money on managing the business marriage. As the manufacturer's revenue from exporting increases, leaving the EMC or reducing EMC's from the business enterprise may prove hazardous due to lack of foreign buyer connections or market knowledge or because of contractual contracts.

Domestic Purchasing

Domestic purchasing is a way of market entrance which involves the least company participation. This export method often requires an unsolicited purchase request from a foreign commercial buyer. The company may not have even considered the export potential of these products until approached from the foreign buyer. In general, companies can use this method to market off excess stock with the least inconvenience. It generates a comparatively low level of revenue and the business is completely reliant on the foreign buyer. The company gains limited understanding of the international marketplaces, as it does not have any direct contact with them. The international buyer often picks up the products at the manufacturer gates and proceeds to move the products, market them, and distribute them in one or more overseas market.

Direct Exporting

Distributors

Export distributors differ from agents in that they take possession and responsibility for the products. Vendors usually take limited protection under the law for the sales and servicing of a specific place where they stand for the manufacturer in every respect. The capital investment can be particularly high for a firm exporting goods needing specialist handling. Due to this large investment both functions undertake to maintain a long-term marriage.

Agents

Export realtors are usually individuals or businesses functioning in a international market, contracted by the firm, and paid a fee to obtain purchases for the merchandise. After entering into a contractual arrangement, sales focuses on are usually arranged with providers by the companies. Agents are usually contracted to transport non-direct competing products therefore providing less contact with risk. Although realtors are the cheapest and quickest form of market admittance, the long-term success is modest to low with a short payback period. Agencies can be good for the company for the reason that they have got local market knowledge, established relationships and offer adequate opinions regarding further product or market development strategies. Brokers do not owner goods which restricts their motivation to boost performance. They can take the proper execution of brokers, manufacturers' representatives, taking care of agencies and compradors accomplishing specific functions (Cateora & Graham, 2002).

Direct Marketing

Using databases marketing tools such as mail order, telemarketing, multimedia marketing, direct email and the internet can be considered a useful strategy to extend a firm's customer foundation abroad. Usually, this market entrance method is very helpful whenever there are high obstacles to entry exist in a international market or where markets have inadequate or underdeveloped distribution systems. Success using immediate marketing can only be obtained if the typical product/service is custom-made to meet the personal needs of the mark market in different market segments. Issues of product advertising and privacy needed to be addressed when participating in telemarketing, direct email or Internet commerce.

Franchising

In franchising, the firm grants the legal right to make use of branding, trademarks and products, and transfers the technique of operation to a third party (the franchisee) in return for a franchise cost. Franchising is less risky and less costly because of the dynamics of the contract. The franchisee supplies the local market knowledge, capital, time and resources needed to develop the franchise. Both types of franchise agreement used by franchising organizations are that of a get good at franchise and licensing. A expert franchise often operates a multi-unit franchising agreement or it might take the form of your trading company whereas in licensing the franchiser uses the property, hallmark and intellectual privileges for a royalty or price.

Management Contracts

Management agreements usually involve selling the skills, competence and understanding of firms in an international context. The contracts performed are usually those for installing management operating and control systems and working out of local staff to dominate when the contractors are done (Doole & Lowe, 2001).

Manufacturing Strategies

Own Subsidiary

This form of market entry requires the utmost commitment in terms of management and resources and will be offering the fullest method of participating in market. Before investing huge capital, the organization must measure the pros and cons of the business enterprise as the expense of withdrawing from the market would be significant. Although only ownership provides higher level of control, the company may well not only incur the expenses if drawback is eminent but also the business's reputation can be damaged both in the foreign and home market. The benefit is of keeping away from communication and issue of interest problems which may arise through other methods like acquisitions and joint ventures.

Acquisition

Acquisition occurs where a business grows its resources and competences by firmly taking over another company. It really is a faster entry strategy in new product or market areas. A firm may acquire cost efficiencies, immediate access to a trained labour force, recognized brands, existing customer and dealer contacts, an instantaneous source of revenue and a recognised distribution network or otherwise because of this of acquisition. In exchange, the acquiring company may have to make certain sacrifices.

Assembly

Assembly involves establishing plants in international markets only to assemble components created in the domestic market by the firm. This technique of market admittance is attractive for several companies when they note that the importation of components is at the mercy of lower tariff obstacles than assembled goods which eventually lower their costs. Additionally, it can be more effective if the finished product is large and travel costs are high. The home seed in addition, can focus on development and creation skills and investment, hence, profiting from economies of size. Assembly businesses also take good thing about lower wage costs and federal government incentives.

Cooperative Strategies

Joint Ventures

Joint venture (JV) is a market entry option in which the exporter and a home company in the prospective country join mutually to form a new integrated company. Both gatherings provide equity and resources to the JV and talk about in the management, earnings and loss. The JV should be limited to the life of a specific project. This option is popular in countries where there are restrictions on foreign ownership, e. g. China. Its advantages include; acquisition of competencies or skills not available in-house, risk sharing of a big project with other companies, faster market entrance/penetration and payback, and preventing technical trade barriers. Its down sides are; divided management control, difficult to recover capital spent, disagreement on new export markets, and different views of lovers on expected benefits.

Strategic Alliances

Strategic alliances are a wide range of cooperative partnerships and joint endeavors which unite to follow a couple of important, decided goals while in some way remaining independent after the forming of an alliance. The companions share both the great things about the alliance and control over the performance of given tasks during the life of the alliance. The associates contribute on a regular basis in one or even more key tactical areas, for example, technology or products. Proper alliances are usually produced in three areas - technology, developing and marketing. The primary reason behind proper alliances is competition. Other reasons include; the reduction of risk, the attainment of economies of range and complementary belongings such as a brand and federal procurement. Businesses, which employ strategic alliances, contain the advantage of simultaneously penetrating several of their key market segments.

Specific Recommendations

The decision of, which international market to go into, depends on companies' exterior as well as inside factors and foreign country's market conditions. The strategy to be followed should be predicated on firm's brief and long-term corporate objectives. In the beginning, the organization should choose among immediate or indirect exporting leading to cooperative and then developing strategies. If exporting is a long-term goal of the organization, then indirect exporting methods may well not prove to be the wisest tactical choice. In long-run, the company has to trade off among costs and control over the decision making.

Customer Service

When a firm becomes extensively involved in international business, logistics sometimes appears as a crucial area of the tactical planning process and a deterministic factor of customer service level. The complexity of the international business environment, including different business traditions, inadequate/inappropriate vehicles infrastructure, restrictive regulatory frameworks, and various degrees of logistics services, presents obstacles that make procedures in international countries far more complicated and less controllable than in home marketplaces. Generally, existing or rising barriers lead to longer order cycle times, higher logistics costs, and better customer dissatisfaction. The customer service level chosen for use internationally is dependant on expectations encountered in each market. These anticipations are reliant on past performance, product desirability; customer sophistication, and the competitive status of the organization and industry. Therefore, additional logistics costs must support operations which may be so important that, if not dealt with properly, they could offset any potential cost savings from using inexpensive labor and other resources in international countries. The necessity for cost-service trade-off evaluation becomes unavoidable for the professionals in such an indifferent situation. Under these circumstances, logistics barriers certainly make it problematic for firms to get a competitive advantage from their international businesses.

Table 1 summarizes the companies' major external factors impacting on its logistic performance (and for that reason, customer service) at local and global level. In addition, it depicts how difficult it becomes for the businesses to provide same degree of customer support at international level. Another major external (and for that reason, uncontrollable) factor which has made international logistics more susceptible and complex is security dangers after 9/11 terrorist episodes. As a result security clearance types of procedures have lengthened and transit times of shipments have long. Insurance charges for cross-border shipments also have climbed. Some factors inside (and for that reason, controllable) to the organization, for example, centralized logistics activities, do not make the client service work best, as possible under local control in overseas market. Financial aspects such as working capital, inventory, capital assets in buildings and tools, and accommodation of goods are also difficult to manage regarding international operations. The managerial capacity for logistics management in deciding best cost-service mix plays a major role in determining the client level.

In order to determine a competent logistics system to support international businesses, especially customer service, a firm can assess when and where logistics barriers may disrupt materials moves in the syndication channel. The id of barriers is important in planning an efficient international functions network. A better knowledge of those barriers permits a firm to consider actions to lessen or prevent them such that it can improve its competitive position in international markets. The firms coming into in the international market should obtain as much as possible information about the business conditions and operating bills of potential market segments. As the client service levels and hence the price incurred, range between countries, the company must analyze the service requirements of customers in each foreign market.

A adaptable and responsive global customer service strategy is dependant on inventory insurance policy and control steps, packaging and containerization, sourcing recycleables, handling export shipments and terms of trade. International logistics is seen as a inventory factors at more levels between suppliers and customers so that it is much complicated than at home level, resulting in longer travel times. With regards to the length of transit time and more inventory level had a need to cover the resultant delays, the company can develop inventory insurance policies and control strategies most appropriate for each and every market area. Another element of customer service is the products' physical condition (must maintain right condition). Packaging and containerization are essential for product handling, climate results, potential pilferage, communication and terminology distinctions, freight rates, and traditions duties whenever a product moves over the borders. The grade of a product depends upon the quality of its recycleables. International sourcing may allow a company to optimise products quality at most affordable possible cost.

The services of several facilitator organizations involved in international logistics activities are constantly utilized by the vast majority of the firms functioning internationally. These organizations include export marketers, customs-house agents, international freight forwarders, trading companies, and non-vessel-operating common carriers (NVOCC). These organizations are highly professionalized in doing their functions and operate at economies of the level. A firm involved with exporting for the very first time would likely utilize the services of a facilitator organization. There are a variety of shipment settings/terms, each one of them featuring its own pros and cons. These terms of trade/delivery found in international logistics are Ex-Works, FCA, FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, CPT, CIP, DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU and DDP. Conditions of shipment have a major impact on a companies' logistics performance as each of them yields an alternative cost of delivery and value to the customer.

Finally, integrated logistics management (ILM) is the ultimate strategy to package with the international customers efficiently. ILM combines all the logistics activities; service location and network design, information management, vehicles management, inventory management, warehousing management, materials handling, and packaging into an individual activity or procedure for logistics aimed towards servicing the client effectively and at the cheapest total cost of all functional activities taken together. The technique of built-in logistics conforms to the logistics objectives; getting the right item to the right customer, in the right number, in the right condition, at the right place, at the right time with the right cost.

Customer service degree of a firm is the representation of managerial capability of its management team. A companies' executive management is likely to use any or a combo of some or all of the above mentioned customer support strategies to deliver value to its customers. The combo varies for different countries/markets at different times.

Answer the below given questions :

Explain the role each one of the pursuing exporting organizations has in global logistics: (a) export distributor, (b) customs house broker, (c) international freight forwarder, (d) trading company, and (e) NVOCC.

Export Distributor: An export distributor deals with the maker on a continuing basis which is authorized and awarded an exclusive right to represent the maker and sell in a few or all overseas markets. It will pay for goods in its domestic transaction with the maker and grips all financial hazards in the international deal. An export distributor's functions include; taking care of distribution channel and related marketing activities, controlling customer clearance, taking care of inventories and warehousing facilities, collecting market information, breaking mass, managing credit policies and providing after-sale services.

Customs House Broker: A customs house broker (CHB) can be an agent who functions the 'clearing' of goods through traditions obstacles for importers and exporters (usually businesses). Agent works different functions/obligations, for example, preparation of documents, the computation (and usually the payment) of fees, responsibilities and excises on behalf of your client, and facilitating communication between your importer/exporter and governmental government bodies etc. CBH also prepares and submits paperwork to government businesses such as medicine department, food safeness department and many more to obtain the clearance. CBH is usually likely to be well familiar with the tariff schedules, obligation rates for imported items, and the state rules i. e. product's country of source.

International Freight Forwarder: A global freight forwarder is a person or company that organizes cross-border shipments for individuals or other companies and could also act as a carrier. A freight forwarder is usually works as an agent rather than a carrier, in other words, as a third-party (non-asset-based) logistics supplier that dispatches shipments via asset-based companies. They have got the expertise that allows them to get ready and process the documents and perform related activities including commercial invoice, shipper's export declaration, monthly bill of lading and other documents required by the carrier or country of export, import, or transshipment regarding international shipments.

Trading Company: A trading company trades alone account. It carries out many functions. It may buy and sell as a merchant. It may deal with goods on consignment, or it may act as a commission rate house for a few purchasers. Trading companies match sellers with purchasers and manage all the supportive functions such as export arrangements, paperwork, travelling, and legislative requirements.

NVOCC: Non-vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) is a shipment consolidator or freight forwarder would you not own any vessel, but functions as a 'carrier' by issuing its own charges of lading or air waybills and assuming responsibility for the shipments from the exporter's dock, including newspaper work and travel.

Identify and summarize five common conditions of delivery or terms of trade used in international logistics

Terms of trade/shipment used in international logistics are Ex-Works, FCA, FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, CPT, CIP, DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU and DDP. Mostly used one's are

Ex-Works: The retailer/exporter makes the goods available at his premises/stock and the buyer/importer is accountable for all charges of transporting that consignment from manufacturing plant to the ultimate destination i. e. importer's warehouse. Owner is not in charge of loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer, unless otherwise arranged in advance. Owner is not also responsible for clearing the products for export.

FCA: Free Carrier (called place). The seller hands over the goods, cleared for export, in to the custody of the first carrier (known as by the customer) at the known as place. This term is ideal for all modes of transportation, including carriage by air, rail, road, and containerized / multi-modal travel.

FAS: Free Alongside Ship (named loading interface). The vendor/exporter fulfils his responsibility to provide when the products have been located alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the known as port of shipment. This means that the buyer/importer has to tolerate all costs and risks of lack of or damage to the goods from that second.

FOB: stands for "Free On Board" or "Freight UP TO SPEED". The vendor/exporter will pay for transportation of the goods to the slot of delivery, plus launching costs. The customer pays cost of sea freight transport, insurance, unloading, and vehicles from the arrival port to the final destination.

CIF: stands for "Cost-Insurance-Freight-" is the price invoiced or quoted by a retailer/exporter which include insurance and everything other charges (cost of the product and sea freight) up to the called interface of destination.

Discuss how organizations may use free trade zones within a worldwide logistics network

Free trade zone (FTZ) can be an portion of a country where some normal trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas are taken out and bureaucratic requirements are lowered hoping of bringing in new businesses and foreign ventures. Recent FTZs are logistics focused and emphasize upon the enlargement of connections between several areas, such as areas mainly for production and areas for logistics activities, as well as airports and seaports to be able to accomplish synergy. Logistics-oriented FTZs or logistic parks provide various services, including box freight stuffing (CFS), storage area, postponement, consolidation and distribution, and value added services such as repackaging. The biggest advantages of logistics-oriented FTZs to a firm are that they allow exporters not and then reduce their tax burden, secure long-term safe-keeping of export cargo but decrease the double activity of goods. The tax in the form of VAT is levied on each purchase on almost all goods and services in most countries. Other advantages made available from FTZs can include exemption of commercial tax, income tax discount for overseas executives, capital goods transfer tariff exemption, aggregate land taxes exemptions, financial support etc. The facilities and services offered by each FTZ differ. Therefore, the businesses must explore each zone individually, to be able to ascertain its potential effectiveness and otherwise effects.

An increasing volume of organizations are becoming involved with international marketing and logistics. Discuss the factors that could influence these to enter international marketplaces.

The response to 'why go in another country?' includes; to attain bigger economies of scale by offering to more customers far away, to reduce the risk of over reliance on one country by growing sales in multiple countries, also to replicate the success at home in new configurations. The solution may further be grouped into

Propensity to internationalize: Prematurely venturing overseas may be damaging to overall strong performance, especially for smaller businesses whose margin for problem is very small. Factors root the motivation going abroad include the size of organization and the size of domestic market.

Figure 2: Propensity to Internationalize

Industry-based factors on the degree of competitiveness: It offers; rivalry among founded competitors, high entry barriers, bargaining vitality of suppliers (entrance through backward integration), bargaining power of potential buyers (accessibility through ahead integration), and risk of substitute products from abroad.

Resource-based considerations on firm specific assets: Organizations seeking resources may choose for stepping into international market predicated on; value (skilled labour, availability of cheap recycleables etc. ), rarity (uniqueness of raw materials or products), imitability (position of property privileges), and organizational installation (a lot more bundled a system).

Institution-based factors on country risks: Institutional factors include Regulatory dangers (balance of variety country restrictions), trade obstacles (tariff and non-tariff barriers), currency dangers (speculation and hedging), social distances, and institutional norms.

Some geographical aspects could also subject such as location and distance, as moving goods over the borders is a significant identifying factor.

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