Globalization is the process of economic, politics and sociable integration of individuals throughout the world into a sophisticated system of exchange and organization.
According to Wikipedia encyclopedia: "globalization explains a continuing process where regional economies population and cultures have grown to be integrated by having a globe-spanning network of communication". Globalization is multidimensional, affecting all areas of life-economic, cultural, environmental and cultural as well as relationships between governments and nations on all the continents. It really is seen as a an intensification of cross border trade and increased financial and international direct investment moves, promoted by quick liberalization and advances in information systems. Its implications range from the trade and investment flows as well as flows of capital. The global procedure for globalization has made the pursuit of development and maintenance of inside and external balance very hard and delicate activity. Similarly globalization holds out to those countries that are employed in the process, the promise of a sustainable expansion in trade and international investment. Alternatively, it heightens the risks of instability and marginalization. Globalization is multifaceted with many important dimensions made up by the stream of information, data, knowledge and solutions. For example, internet facilitates the exchange of information and makes various peoples surrounding the world always linked. In this process a doctor situated in Cameroon can buy help from a colleague positioned in Hungary at any time on an extremely urgent circumstance without need to visit, but simply by using his computer and the web connection. What we should can do with calling of course in some instances. Two students from distant countries could work jointly when necessary using new technology of information.
B - Necessity and genesis of globalization
Disputed, there is still little proven fact that some sort of process much like globalization occurred during the Antiquity which process was occurring step by step. One can locate a first expression of this process from the next millennium before Jesus-Christ: a huge commercial zone extending from Indus in the Minoan world via the places of Fertile Crescent. This first look at will be of short duration due to stop of trade triggered by the irruption of Indo-European invaders by the end of the second millennium.
The second make an effort will need place at the creation of the Persian Empire which allows the establishment of any indirect commercial contact between the phenician and Greek colonies and between Indian locations. The Greeks therefore became totally aware of wideness of the world.
* The mixing up of the populations: following conquests of Alexandre, the Greeks will negotiate everywhere in the Persian Empire (specifically in Bactriane). As a result they create for themselves cosmopolitan places with the example of Alexandria, populated by Greeks, Egyptians, and Jews.
* The constitution of a global culture: the Greek culture becomes widespread culture that the non-Greek endeavors to acquire. We likewise have the constitution of the welt-Literature (the catalogue of Alexandria made up of Indian and Buddhist text messages).
* Intensification and the globalization of the exchanges: the trade becomes particularly flourishing, primarily due to suppression of the tariff barriers therefore of the quasi-disappearance of imperial expert. The Greeks resolved in India were mixed up in development of Buddha that was exported to Japan.
* Multilateralism: constitution of pretty much equal Claims by their size and their power, which involves certain emulation.
* The specialized invention: great technological and advanced technological discoveries will not be equalized before a long time with Syracuse and Alexandria specifically.
Globalization started increasing momentum in the 1960s when businesses searching for larger markets extended their reach and passions beyond national edges. Four major innovations have defined and strengthened this process: the enlargement of the universe of monetary activity beyond the nation-state; the liberalization of international trade; the growing need for international financial flows; and the growth of information and communication technology. These trends have almost completely refashioned the entire world economic system. We are able to also speak about the aftermath of the next World Battle with the creation of the WTO, GATT, IMF WORLD BANK during 1940 ten years, to prevent another world problems and promote the reconstruction of Europe and the introduction of the global trade.
II. Effect OF GLOBALIZATION ON CAMEROON
Globalization has helped increase growth and wealth in recent years, but it hasn't done so for all those continents and everything countries. Whatsoever developed countries and on photography equipment specifically, a worsening of existing imbalances has impeded development and aggravated poverty. The marginalization of the countries is reflected in their small show of world trade, end result, and international investment.
For countries like Cameroon, the problem is exacerbated by unsustainable exterior arrears and by unfulfilled pledges of established assistance at a time when the country cannot continue its reforms and development efforts without financial support. We ought to examine different areas of globalization and evaluate its benefits and risks in light of the recent Economic, Political and Social evolution which have shaken Cameroon.
A. ECONOMIC IMPACT
Despite a sometimes unfavorable international environment, designated by climatic constraints that contain affected northern parts of the country, Cameroon has, overall, recorded acceptable rates of progress in recent years. The country recorded progress of 5 percent or even more in 1998, and the united states is attempting to improve per capita GNP significantly while controlling inflation. However, this performance has been achieved at the price tag on costly structural reforms which may have often negatively affected the most vulnerable segments of contemporary society.
(i) Creating the best possible conditions for private investment by promoting greater openness in home and international trade; and
(ii) Making the market more efficient by redefining the role of the state of hawaii, reforming the civil service so as to increase the business weather, and introducing a clear legal and regulatory framework that will encourage private investment. Government authorities should concentrate on social development, especially health and education, to make up the large deficit that the country has in this field.
The financial sector, an essential channel for applying and ensuring the success of these reforms, must be included in any reform program. The consolidation, restructuring, and modernization of the bank sector and the introduction of capital markets and financial institutions are both important. However, earlier experience shows that, to reach your goals, reforms must be adapted to each country's specific financial and cultural characteristics as well as to its priorities and degree of development.
While Cameroon may endure key responsibility for obtaining the reform and development goals, international organizations and the international community must support Cameroon's attempts. In the event the clear desire of Cameroon to take itself up and be part of the world overall economy is combined with greater determination on the part of the industrial countries to honor their commitments and open their marketplaces, with the support of local and international organizations, we will be able to meet up with the issues of increasing development and lowering poverty and therefore lay the foundation for political, financial, and social steadiness.
As an initial step, the commercial countries could support Cameroon's work by allowing the country's exports free access to their market segments, which would permit the intensely indebted countries in particular to better incorporate with the global trading system. The abolition of trade obstacles, according to some studies, could deliver income moves that are three times the quantity of the external help provided to the developing countries. This final result leads us to a crucial point about the option of resources, which have so far been inadequate for Cameroon rest from the burden of the external credit debt, through cancellation or rescheduling, would permit the country to save lots of resources that may be allocated to fruitful investment, which would generate expansion and improve cultural justice.
These same companions could provide additional support by promoting moves of private capital to Cameroon, especially Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), which rather than generating debt, creates new careers and frequently brings new technology to the country. Indeed, if Cameroon is to raise the level of its technological development, it will need to determine partnerships with the advanced commercial countries in the areas of natural and nutrient resources. Through these partnerships, know-how would be transferred from the advanced economies to the united states and provide value added that could position the country's products to meet global demand and compete internationally. Finally, Cameroon's partners could provide support by honoring their existing financial commitments to the reduction of poverty. Poverty in Cameroon influences close to 40% of its people. Cameroon can make good progress evading the scourge of poverty and enhance the lives of its individuals if it relies on new existing blue prints and capture the great things about globalization. Communication technology has herald a worldwide competition for capital goods, loans and other services. Today's market depicts a world in which development is more important than mass creation. A world in where investment buys new concepts or the means to create them alternatively than new machines. A world where speedy change is a continuing, a world at least as not the same as what came before as the professional age group was from its agricultural predecessor, a world so different in a way that its emergence can only just be described as a revolution. Where do producing countries such as Cameroon fit in this new world overall economy? What can Cameroon do to become major player in today's global overall economy?
B. POLITICAL IMPACT
A mixture of new solutions and the globalization of the economy present challenges to the government of Cameroon, the custodian of the wellbeing of its people. Until lately, the state's scope of activities experienced no defined limitations. Furthermore to its sovereign functions (for example, security, justice, education, and healthcare), it was involved with economic life through immediate control over the creation and distribution of several goods and services. In Cameroon, the state of hawaii has been accountable for managing even finance institutions, as well as controlling trade and capital flows between the countrywide economy and all of those other world.
This interventionist system, that was justified in a variety of ways, eventually ran out of steam in early on 1990s. Nonetheless it did not give way to a burgeoning private effort. A restrictive regulatory construction limited private initiatives to marginal activities, stifling the introduction of a true entrepreneurial class. It is precisely from this restrictive regulatory platform that Cameroon must extricate itself if she actually is to understand her true potential in the global current economic climate. For this to happen, federal government action must give attention to four areas.
a) Stabilizing the macroeconomic situation. This is essential if Cameroon is usually to be competitive in the globalized economy. Unproductive spending, fiscal imbalances, and large balance of repayments deficit must be included. Only then will the condition be able to spend more resources to the engineering of adequate infrastructure (such as better highways, deep seaports and proper international airports, adequate supply of electricity, and option of portable drinking water), consolidation of the long-term bases of development (such as education, healthcare, and the surroundings), and the have difficulties against poverty and unemployment.
b) Reducing how big is the public sector. Their state must withdraw from the commercial sector and spend more time and resources to the delivery of essential open public services. The tool for this is the privatization of inefficient public enterprises Neoclassical reasoning intimates that the private sector is far better equipped than the government to manage commercial activities effectively, because its decision-making equipment is less unwieldy and its own ability to adapt to changes in the environment is better. Reforms in the general public sector must be led by the desire to liberalize financial activities and promote free business. Therefore, the state of hawaii must encourage healthy competition among businesses while eliminating economical rents and mechanisms that lawfully confer a dominating position on a company or economic agent/ethnic teams.
A platform for allowing market causes to proficiently determine prices must be instituted. Such a framework would encourage competition among businesses and curb the distortions inherent in any system of given prices and adjustments. Thus, the establishment of the Douala Stock Exchange (DSX) is a welcome move. The DSX will no doubt (i) promote the motion of capital across Cameroon and international markets; (ii) increase investment opportunities; (iii) encourage most effective funding for Cameroonian businesses; and (iv) improve the appeal of Cameroon as a country for investment, both by local and non-regional buyers. To reap maximum benefit from these, Cameroon must liberalize trade and foreign exchange transactions to draw in overseas investment.
Transparency of federal government. People must be placed enlightened of the decisions of the state of hawaii and their justification. There has to be simplicity of methods. Whether in fiscal things, investment, or other areas, administrative procedures have to be as easy as possible, with the amount of individuals reduced to a minimum.
Responsibility. General public officers must be placed accountable and, if possible, penalized for offenses. The fight against corruption must be intensified. Eradication of the scourge is important for promoting healthy competition, eradicating surcharges, and building up the efficiency of monetary management.
Individual flexibility and collective appearance. A free and dependable press, in particular, can be an important pillar of democracy. The State must uphold the independence of the legal system. The legal system must get rid pressure and intervention from political makes or any other business, to ensure that its decisions are 3rd party and impartial. While Cameroonian business regulations on paper are clear, few foreign traders have come forwards because implementation of those laws is difficult. Beneath the current judicial system, local and foreign investors have found it complicated and costly to enforce agreement privileges, protect property rights, and obtain a good and expeditious ability to hear before the courts.
C. Friendly IMPACT
In Cameroon, civil modern culture plays a dual role. First, as a mouthpiece for democracy, it is the key challenger of the energy of their state, restricting deviations from good governance and performing as a regulator in the political world. This civil world (voluntary organizations, community teams, trade unions, cathedral communities, co-operatives, business, professional and philanthropic organizations and a variety of other NGOs) keeps growing remarkably fast. It is becoming more prepared and collaborates effectively with civil modern culture in other countries. Cooperation with organizations such as the International Federation of Individuals Rights is an excellent example of how this trend works. Within the regions of development, the surroundings or human protection under the law, NGOs have added a fresh dimensions to traditional politics and also have helped to find new types of addressing nationwide problems. As evidenced in the privatization and deregulation techniques, Cameroon is forging ahead with the establishment of an effective functioning market overall economy. However, despite its overall efficiency, the marketplace economy can create negative public and environmental externalities. Civil world, as displayed by consumer associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), assists as a watchdog to contain market excesses and also to guard against environmental maltreatment by increasing public awareness of ecological problems for example, disposal of toxic waste.
Civil society also has a significant role to experience in smoothing the entrance of Cameroon in to the global economy. Being close to the individuals and their concerns, it is the appropriate forum for nurturing awareness of the difficulties globalization poses and for the required changes in thinking. Hence, it is important that civil contemporary society be fully involved in defining growth strategies, whose success is largely dependent on popular support. In total, civil population can also play a significant role to advertise the mobilization of savings through decentralized financial institutions and, in general, helping to beat poverty especially via the microfinance strategies.
III. CAMEROON EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
On many aspects, record, colonial, socio-cultural, physical, religious, individual, linguistic, Cameroun is the country of variety, Country of contrasts; in addition Cameroon is sometime considers like Africa in small. Its specificities are rather representative of the other African contexts in the south of the Sahara. To be able to understand the Cameroon school system it is important to associate its history and evolution and to addresses how education in Cameroon copes with the stakes of globalization.
A. Background AND EVOLUTION
It is without a doubt advisable to recall that the history of college in Cameroun is tightly connected, first to the large campaign of Christian evangelization, second to the job of colonization engaged by the Western european States. Upon this point, one of the Cameroun specificities is to possess known three colonial models and so three colonial systems of school, which subjacent ideology affects remain strong in the current modes of education.
Our matter is thus to see the procedure of engineering of the institution, through its actors, with the consequent impact of successive reforms. Three key moments marked the introduction of the institution and the institution guidelines in Cameroun: the colonial period (1844-1959), the post self-reliance period (1960-1985) and from 1990 to our days.
The colonial period (1844-1959)
The origin of school in Cameroun is exact. Many authors consent to say that it is with the entrance of missionaries "Baptist missionaries" from London, settled on the Cameroonian littoral since 1841 that schooling starts off. Actually, the first university opens its doors in 1844 in Bimbia at the instigation of Joseph Merrick. Later, we help the arrangement of others congregations, and in particular the Blois missionary of protestant confession, the fathers pallotins and American Presbyterians. All intervene on the school scene and the ground of conversion. In 1859, we already count up seven institutions Baptists including five in Douala, one in Victoria and one in Bimbia. By as soon as Gustave Nachtigal makes "Kamerun"a German protectorate in 1884, there already is present an old college custom of forty years. From 1919 to 1959 Cameroun is successively put under the mandate and the supervision of France and Great britain. The First World War leads to the departure of the Germans from "Kamerun" in 1918 with the section of German property in Africa; France inherits 80% and England 20% of Cameroon. The treaty of Versailles of June 29, 1919 gives to France and England the role to control both respectively territories. The act of the mandate signed in 1922 comprises, for the forces realtors, the "obligation to increase by all the means the material and moral well-being. . . of populations". It advises to them in addition "to provide to all or any the missionaries the center to permeate in territories, to improve properties with a religious aim and open schools". The mandate can last until 1944.
The post independence period (1960-1985)
With the finish of the guidance, in 1959, French Cameroon reaches freedom in 1960, Reunification in 1961 with the old United kingdom part, form the national Republic of Cameroun. The first folks in charge for the united states are conscious due to the actual fact that "the future is made by education". From the beginning, their state assures the right of schooling for every body. It's the principal actor. The reunification of both educational subsystems inherited from colonization does not happen, they cohabit. Each one attracts its marks regarding to its record and its past. French-English bilingualism is preserved. Local languages miss from established programs. The church which provides schooling and evangelization employs both languages in their colleges. Years 60, 70 and 80 will be the years of the school increase. This qualitative and quantitative extension is to be put in regards to the politic and financial guidelines of that time period. As a whole, the motion of education mainly improved while adapting sometimes to local realities. However, by many aspects, as well on the Anglophone part as on the French-speaking aspect, the machine has continued to develop and maintain the functional structures, symbol of id acquired the days before independence. For example, the function of organization and the school calendar, which prevail during colonization, stay unchanged. Thus, with each one of the three degrees of schooling the academic yr which is disseminate from Sept to June, does not take bill of financial, climatic nor agricultural realities of the country. In this particular same context, vestiges of the types of certification resulting from the colonial time continue steadily to structure the evaluation of the trainings. It is merely in 1995 that the CEPE becomes the CEP. The grading examination (first area of the baccalaureat), which goes back to 1952 is removed in France since years, but remains a requirement of the passage in final school in Cameroon. It really is a selective evaluation.
From 1990 to your days
In reality, it is 1985 that commences this new era. It will be of great interest to grasp the school crisis and the reforms which is committed to the turning of the years 2000. The societal turmoil which styles the 1980 ten years stands precise in 1990, when it becomes severe and multiform. All the political, cultural, democratic, economic areas are worried by the turmoil. This context resulted in a tumultuous upheaval of the cultural landscape. To adjust to the new situation, Cameroun reaches the Program of structural modification (NOT) imposed by the International Monetary Account (the IMF) and the entire world Bank. Regarding public guidelines implication, we observe the interaction between your local ideas and the transnational types of management. Because of this financial situation, the imbalance between demand and supply of education increases. The huge size of the crisis, because of its bad social effect, resulted in the deterioration of the credibility that human population have been put in school and by the same occasion tarnish the image of the school. Therefore, at the time when we show up at the great semester of the institution, the thought of globalization crosses the general public debates. Supranational affects contribute a great deal, in the redefining of the training policy to meet the new exigences. We can consider as a good result of the problems the injunction of some backers who provide finance and loan. The institution scene becomes advantageous to necessary reforms and starting earning some advantages from external aid. The brand new orientations of the institution keep customs French and English systems. It is on the college or university level that the most advanced attempt to legitimate the planet reasoning of education is discovered with the implementation of LMD system (Bachelor, expert, and PhD) impelled by the Bologna process.
B. STAKES OF GLOBALIZATION AND CAMEROON EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
On the basis of a certain number of accounts, it is recommended to identify and examine the stakes to which the troubles of the educational plans graft. It is estimated that Cameroun, in 2015, by its inhabitants, must accommodate almost five to six million pupils at the same time when the objectives of widespread education therefore will not have been achieved. To face this challenge, major school enrollmentis likely to play a decisive role in knowing the recommendations contained in the Millennium. Education for everyone remains an issue that nourishes a idea that the expansion of schooling can contribute to the advertising of the market. Around 15 to 20% children from 3 to 4 4 years old follow a pre-school education. The authorities, to better meet up with the difficulties of education for everyone, should give attention to the maternal education which seems never to experience a substantial development. This option should be accompanied by a range of measurements facilitating the effectiveness of free and compulsory education. The problems of common education raise the question of the contribution of the girls in education. Upon this point, in Cameroun, the enrollment of young girls remains a recurring and immediate problem. In the centre of globalization, the data is the question of communication and information solutions. It an issue worth focusing on. The project underlines the numerical fracture between north and South. The history of the institution in Cameroun, the analysis of its makes and its weaknesses still continue to be to be made. In a world which evolves/steps and changes forever, the school has to change while adapting to changes and with the new contexts. The institution isn't only ideology. It is also a shared culture and openness. It offers knowledge and values that are around universal. It really is in the sense that globalization education, which can not be uniform or submission to a single and total order, is effective. It constitutes a new element to take into account in the definition of the educational plans. Globalization will not make it possible to reduce the issues and inequalities observed. In a step forward, it is good governance and the successful leadership that can make a difference. Clearly, Cameroun is definitely looking forward to unify its educational system. The school in Cameroun is not the Cameroonian school. It requires a center, an identification to meet up with the needs of the contemporary society. Hence the effort that lies in advance. In this beginning of the third millennium, African education system, for fear of sinking, are confronted with the urgency of reform
For the near future Cameroon's federal government will continue steadily to play a substantial role in the daily lives and wellbeing of its people, the changing paradigm of increasing reliance on market forces notwithstanding. The financially strong pushes in modern culture who assert a need to dismantle impediments to international trade often also assert a dependence on "strong" domestic insurance policies to ease the working of marketplaces. Handicapped by the weakness of its infrastructure and low degree of commercial development, Cameroon is plainly not sufficiently integrated into the global overall economy. However, it is also clear that the united states cannot afford to remain on the sidelines of globalization. To facilitate its inclusion on the globe overall economy, Cameroon must begin to make significant institutional reforms-in particular, by refocusing the functions of the state toward its essential mission of providing needed general population services; promoting the introduction of a powerful private sector inside a liberalized and translucent framework; and building up the role of civil world, which is crucial for any public and financial change. Regional economic integration is also a required element for obtaining Cameroon's active involvement in globalization.
All these reforms have extremely high financial and public costs that much surpass the country's current resources. It ought to be noted that a country without trained women and men can be seen as a community of primitives. For the introduction of the country, area must be able to count on individual as well as collective intellect. This knowledge can only be obtained through education; which means federal of Cameroon has to be able to supply the necessary means to reach the objective of providing education for all your young peoples. It is hoped, therefore, that Cameroon may be able to depend on international cooperation to aid its financial development initiatives. Particular attention must be paid to managing the external debts that weights greatly on public budget and significantly reduces the maneuvering room the federal government needs to generate financing for infrastructure and poverty lowering. The various debt-reduction initiatives undertaken by the international financial community are very encouraging and really should be explored more intensively.
www-aidelf. ined. fr/colloques/seance6/t_kom. pdf
redalyc. uaemex. mx/redalyc/pdf/295/29501412. pdf
en. wikipedia. org/. . . /Education_in_Cameroon
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