Impact Of Globalization On Education Economics Essay

"Globalization" presents the intensifying widening and building up of the world relations because the Second World Warfare. It has reached a level where no one is untouched by the happenings happening outside its condition boundaries. International occurrences are now restricting any 3rd party national action. Companies in the United States, European countries, and Japan can now produce a product in India or New Zealand, outsource clerical work to Ireland or Mexico, and sell worldwide without being concerned about the long distances or the variety of cultures engaged (Martin Carnoy 2005).

According to Noel F. McGinn (1999), globalization involves the following flows which connect to each other

People within and across talk about edges as labour, refugees, and holidaymakers.

Information by means of news, statistics, studies, etc.

New technologies such as that of communication, creation, etc. that improve the living standards of individuals.

Financial resources facilitated by the above mentioned factors.

Ideas circulated through television set networks, motion pictures, music, books, etc.

Globalization can be seen as a direct consequence of the pass on of the Western culture throughout the world via colonialisation. The existing wave of globalization has already established a profound influence on the financial and political set ups of the world. Now, no land has any control over the worthiness of its money or higher the movement of capital in and out of the country. 'For the first time in human history, anything can be made anywhere and sold all over the place' (Rui Yang 2003).

Education enriches real human lives and boosts the standard of human wellbeing. Education is definitely an important source for the financial and social progress of the world. It not only affects the productivity of your country and therefore its potential to be competitive internationally, but additionally it is important to attract international capital. Education is just about the key to global trading success. Other important elements for an effective current economic climate, such as infrastructure, productive federal, health of the citizens, etc. are also related to education in one way or the other (Frances Stewart, 1996).

Globalization is a phenomenon that has damaged nearly every sphere of the world. The consequences of globalization vary from being economical, social, political, ethnical, and environmental. On one hand, globalization has shrunk the globe, having people and countries closer to one another. On the other hand, it offers strengthened the divisions by causing the wealthy richer and the indegent poorer. The magnitude of the result of globalization is so huge that it has additionally affected the education all over the world. For me, globalization is most likely with an indirect effect on the entire world education systems by changing the surroundings in which these education systems work. Education, in modern times has become a business. The concentrate has shifted from imparting knowledge and wisdom to making financial profits. On one hand, globalization has increased the need and levels of education, on the other, it has also burdened many countries to provide sufficient quantity and quality of education. Globalization has made it possible for folks from under privileged countries to gain access to education even using their company homes. But, at exactly the same time has put up the pressure of it on such section of men and women which calls for high financial purchases. They have at one end broadened the horizon for the move of knowledge, on the other has made people a slave of technology. It is therefore; very hard to state whether the effects of globalization are positive or negative.

HISTORY

The creation of the National Education Systems in European countries (and later in america) was the first major impact of globalization on education. Following was the imposition of such systems on other countries by the colonial power. The world in those days had been strike by a wave of "westernization" and was reliant on the external economical forces. Before 1945, all independent nations had similar systems of education with common goals, framework and articles. Most nations that gained their independence after 1945, tried to expand the training systems set up by their colonial experts. However, the truth is, they didn't make any significant changes. A number of countries, e. g. the United Republic of Tanzania, tried to construct a distinctive system but later reverted back again to the Western european models (Noel F. McGinn, 1997).

EFFECTS ON EDUCATION

To meet the global demands and conform to the international criteria, advanced schooling in the developing countries is currently being built-into the entire world community. The international character of the "university" is expected to be affected highly due to this transformation. Higher education has become a commercial commodity in which a global market is taking condition. The expansion of this market anticipated to globalization is principally motivated by monetary factors. Managements believe that to be able to survive and prosper in this globalized world, they must become customer-focussed business entity. Hardly any people available of higher education identify the difference between globalization and internationalization of the systems (Rui Yang, 2003).

At various discussion boards, experts have been communicating about how the education systems must change to be able to attain a far more "global" methodology. Some emphasize on increasing the understanding about other ethnicities while some support the theory that knowledge and skill can make a country "globally competitive".

THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS ON EDUCATION

A major impact of globalization on advanced schooling is the use of economic criteria as point of reference. Amounts (of graduates, grants or loans, magazines, etc. ) have become sole indications of the school accomplishments while educational prices are being lost along the way. These tendencies also have created a divide among the more profitable content of applied sciences and technology, and those predicated on theoretical values, specifically of arts and humanities. It has also created institutional winners and losers, widening the space between the very few elite colleges and numerous 'mediocre' institutes. Successful economies are being building up by the symbiotic partnerships of colleges and industry. Lessons being taught rely greatly on the number of students enrolled and the financial back-up provided by the industry. Often, lessons are cancelled if enough students do not enrol. Conversely, if many students are interested, any absurd course can be educated. The 'school room' is burning off its importance. Even the goals of the students are changing. They expect lectures to be amusing talk-shows rather than informative. Earlier, the professors professed, now these are just specialists, careerists, and business people, as in the organization sector. As Person Neave places it, "education is less part of public plan but is more and more viewed as a subsector of financial coverage" (Rui Yang, 2003).

Globalization has already established its effect on the secondary level of education as well, i. e. the classes. Stakeholders, who previously experienced no say in academic decision-making, are now making unreasonable needs that the schools cannot meet. Today every university in the world is trying to repair up its existing education system to meet the global demands (Noel F. McGill, 1999). Students are now being subjected to latest technologies, such as the internet, at a very early age. Brad Pitt and Tom Luxury cruise will be the heroes for today's young people instead of Abraham Lincoln or Mahatma Gandhi. Institution students spend more hours on computer systems or in front of television sets than they spend using their books. Parents also expect the utilization of hi-tech instruments in classrooms in return of the high fees they pay.

CRISIS OF THE TRAINING SECTOR

Today, most governments are under a constant pressure of checking the progress of public spending on the education sector. They need to look for other resources to fund the expansion with their education systems. Regardless of the increase in the amount of student enrolments, an over-all trend towards the reduction of the per capita money to raised education under the impact of globalization has been detected. This has led to the current fiscal problems of the training sector. The burden of financing this sector is being shifted on the shoulders of people. Many public colleges and institutes are also depending upon non-governmental sources, such as scholar tuition and other fees, donations from alumni, repayment from industrial resources in return of services being provided by the universities. The privatisation of the education sector, operating parallel to the financial reductions, favours those who can afford the high fees involved. These defects of the machine are placing the fate of colleges on stake by ignoring the calibre of the graduates produced and the quality and output of the academics staff (Rui Yang, 2003).

GLOBAL (ISED) LEARNING AND TEACHING

Without distinguishing the hype from the truth, today there is an international tendency to jump into the market for digital delivery of education. The technology-delivered teaching is being advertised as convenient, self-paced, interactive, faster and cheaper, flexible regarding time and space. Early in the 20th hundred years, motion pictures were speculated to occur of books as the setting of education. The trend of the radio also sparked the drive to connect the rural areas to various universities. Video, dish, and wire communication followed. In each circumstance the training opportunities for folks, who may not otherwise have had them, widened. However, the final results of such cutting-edge technology were short-lived. The latest feeling is the on-line coaching and learning. Distance education, which depends greatly on these solutions, is fast learning to be a convenient option for students all around the globe. Management pundit, Peter Drucker has forecasted that the residential school campus would go away within the next 30 years (Rui Yang, 2003).

The current system of globalised education depends on many inexpensive, socio-political and technical reasons. These are related to the expected benefits associated with the global scholar body- increased availability and overall flexibility, which is believed to beat the rigidity of the original system of the universities: constraints on what constitute the academic calendar, where and exactly how credits are allotted, and the way the training are modularised. Those that market the on-line education, often gloss the concept by overlooking the constraints of the technological capacity and literacy, as well as the various cultures, languages and learning styles around the world. The exclusive campus may broaden the opportunities for some by providing overall flexibility and ease, but not for those at the low end of the economical strata. Online space is infinite but it lacks the universality or equality. In fact, it can create a "digital split" between rich and poor within countries. On an international platform, this separate may leave the Third World countries, where telephone and electric services are unreliable and radio is known as a luxury, further behind the global overall economy (Rui Yang, 2003). However, we can not underestimate the near future use of such new technology as it has the capacity to web page link the students from even the most remote control parts with all of those other world. Globalized information systems may change the world culture (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).

Globalization of education has been centred on "consumerism". Learning is no more about analysis, conversation and examination. It has turned into a product that are being sold and sold, is filled, advertised and advertised. The growing global competition is harmful to the nature of education. This is true especially for the truth of distance education. Globalization of education, though offers variety of alternatives, this comes at a cost of promotion of national beliefs, skills and knowledge. This also spreads the prominent ideologies, in ways bringing back the time of colonisation. Usage of English terminology as the prominent terms in globalised teaching and learning, annihilates the neighborhood cultural values of several countries. This also offers an advantage to the British language providers to monopolise the sector (Rui Yang, 2003).

Overseas university student education could very well be the major market in today's world. It really is now a multi-billion dollar business. The related industry of coaching English language, preparing students for several entrance examinations, assisting students with school applications and related formalities, in addition has gained a whole lot of importance. Several are unregulated and also have put into the funds of the education business. Colleges of developed countries are offering lots of "off-shore" certifications. Shiny brochures and adverts are being used to get student dollars. Though some off-shore courses are provided by renowned universities, many worthless and unrecognised institutes are also setup which sell certificates in exchange of money. Institutes have become "level mills" (Rui Yang, 2003).

POSITIVE ASPECTS

Teachers were earlier considered themselves as "good sages on the stage" who imparted information, knowledge and knowledge to the students whose imagination were "empty vessels" longing to be filled. Globalization has generated a demand for a workforce for whom the objective of education is to teach how to learn, problem-solve and make the old with the new. Education is no longer filling the unfilled vessels by conveying information. It includes enhanced the ability of the learners to access, assess, take up and apply information. The transformed education system makes them think individually but at the same time collaborate with others to complete an activity. Globalization has infused into today's learners the capability to be more familiar and comfortable with abstract concepts and uncertain situations. In the current academic scenario, most of the students are presented with ready-made problems and then must solve them. This makes the students prepared to face the issues of the work-place where they must look for problems, gather necessary data and make up to date decisions (Derrick L. Cogburn).

The revolution in the field of information technology has improved the role of educators from "sages on the stage" to "guide on the side". The usage of internet, World Wide Web, printed, audio, video and other types of media enables students to acquire and utilise knowledge in a variety of forms across the world. Students are now required not only to work in teams literally but also figure out how to become a part of a larger global digital network. International organisations are increasingly employing such online teams for research and development activities (Derrick L. Cogburn). Alongside one another, computer technology and telecommunications has managed to get possible for organizations to relocate their operations to any part of the planet that provides cost-competitive labour and infrastructure. Due to advances in it, money can be moved across edges with simply click of a button (Leon Tikly, 20001).

Earlier, production of primary goods used to occur in the under-developed or developing countries while their change into made products occurred in the developed parts. Along with the expansion of the education sector, this process has changed, providing with itself financial growth to the 3rd World countries (Leon Tikly, 2001).

Women's educational opportunities have been extended due to the increased dependence on highly-educated, low-cost labours. Therefore, the countries which were earlier tolerant to providing equivalent opportunities to women are also gradually and steadily changing their regulations (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).

CONCLUSION

The effects of globalization won't be the same all around the world, nor are all of these negative.

Despite a few strengths, the globalization of education is in the end influenced by the international market thereby creating more issues for the developing nations than opportunities. Quality control, information management, managing the costs and benefits are among the main challenges. Together, all these aspects endanger the true spirit of education, putting the continuing future of universities on the line. However, not absolutely all desire is lost. The impact of globalization also will depend upon the response of the individuals which is a reflection of the neighborhood conditions. Therefore, the relationship between the person and the global scenario must be the primary of any education reforms (Rui Yang, 2003).

Active responses are essential within the public and private sectors at the regional, national, and international levels, in order to experience the opportunities created by globalization and concurrently overcome its challenges. At the national level, as many people as possible should be permitted to be a part of an employment that improves their quality of life. Also regulations should be produced to meet the increasing demands of global organisations working within the global economy (Derrick L. Cogburn).

Globalization is a very real phenomenon. It is changing the world in all possible aspects, knowledge and information being one of the main elements. Tremendous co-operation is required between local and global organisations in order to address the difficulties created by globalization (Derrick L. Cogburn).

Governments are under pressure to attract foreign capital and are required to source skilled labour. This gives surge to a pressure to increase the levels of skills and education of the labour push. In the past few years, there has been an increase in income inequality. The demand for universities increase with the increase in incomes of higher-educated labour force. This further boosts the pressure on the governments to extend their education areas (Martin Carnoy and Diana Rhoten, 2002).

The education sector is under a growing pressure of getting together with the demands of the new information-intensive global market.

Globalization has altered the conception of knowledge and skills around the world. This has resulted in the establishment of a complete range of new market sectors.

Due to globalization, various kinds of sectors are growing, such as biotechnology, material sciences, artificial intelligence, medical therapeutics, processing advances, etc. This creates a demand for highly specialized workers. Research and development has turned into a critical element of any industry. Therefore, knowledge and skill has become the main factor for development and economic growth (Derrick L. Cogburn).

The clinical world has been dominated by the research-producing countries, who are acting as the "gatekeepers" of technology. Statistics show that the majority of scientific journals are edited by the scholars of the major European countries (Rui Yang, 2003).

Universities surrounding the world are seeking to include 'pupil exchange programs' to be able to promote cross-border education (Noel F. McGinn, 1997).

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