Independence to Dependency Globalization impact on Jamaican Women

The impact of the globalization job on under-developed countries has been progressively escalating worldwide. Through this task, economies of nations throughout the world have become more progressively interconnected. Even though many countries, generally those of the Western world, benefit significantly from this process, developing countries often do not benefit from the same benefits. Two years ago I required a sail to the Caribbean and seen lots of the islands. One of the countries that basically stood out for me personally was Jamaica. Though the experience was unforgettable, I could not help but spot the extreme poverty in non-tourist areas. It is shocking to see what appears to be two very different places on one small island. One side full of luxury and beauty, the other of hardships and have difficulties. Through Global Development Studies I learned more about the financial situation of the growing countries and gained an additional knowledge of the context of what I observed. Because of this, my question for research is, while globalization has connected many countries, is its impact on women in expanding countries, more specifically Jamaica, really beneficial? World organizations including the IMF and World Lender, in adition to that of transnational organizations (TNCs) in the area, have gained huge control over the economical functions of Jamaica over the last few ages. This shift of ability has impacted the united states as a whole, however, their impression has been felt most by Jamaican women. The creation of "Free Zones" has modified the way women live and get excited about the work make. The impact of globalization has damaged every sector of Jamaican women's lives. Financially, their anguish is worsened, as well, their health becomes endangered and finally the cultural effects of the growing firms cause further outcomes. The discourse of the inequalities and exploitations of these women has given climb for the reasoning to further research the topic in hopes to

make an improved future. Though globalization has been proven to offer an increase of beneficial connections globally, it eventually proves to be extremely damaging to Jamaican women.

Although the execution of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPS) was intended to bring economic prosperity to expanding countries, the impact it experienced on Jamaican women proved often. Bolles (1996) points out the result that the nationwide debt crisis had on the creation of Free Trade Zones (FTZs). After getting independence, Jamaica's market was extremely unstable. As a result, the Jamaican administration had to vacation resort to borrowing lending options from European countries and, consequentially, this led to them falling into major credit debt. This brought on the IMF and World Loan provider to be placed in control of all loans, and so be capable of implement SAPs. While this technique was used to ease the debt of the growing country, it basically exacerbated the problem (Bolles 1996). Due to the immense international involvement, these programs demonstrated to do hardly any in conditions of economic success. Including the Independent Analysis Group (2001) points out that in 1985 exterior credit debt was still 180 percent of the GDP. Moreover, due to the pro-foreign investment dynamics of the programs, they in the end led to the creation of Free Areas in Jamaica, which were typically gender specific. Transnational companies were drawn to these countries getting involved in SAPs as a result of "race to underneath" result (Standings 1989). Standings points out that TNCs are drawn to these countries as a consequence do the poor labor regulations in conditions of wages, legislation and benefits. These businesses also receive tax breaks from the federal government to further promote investment. Because of this blend, Jamaican women endured. Moreover, these zones are seen as well suited for major corporations because of the fact that, while technically unionization is allowed, there are zero unions in free zones in Jamaica (Willmore 1993). This also relates back again to the thought of racing to the bottom: the federal government of Jamaica would never online backup their people in developing a union because the TNC would simply relocate to a country which would appeal to their wishes, thus making these female personnel helpless (Willmore 1993). The Structural Adjustment Programs set up through the increasing globalizing world are became unfavorable for Jamaican women.

While the SAPs provided the admittance for the transnational corporations to build the Free Zones in Jamaica, the actions of the companies themselves in terms of salary and taxation further highlight the battles noticed by Jamaican women scheduled to globalization. The gender details of the zones led to the firms relying intensely on female labor and the feminization of labor (Bolles 1996). Together with the give attention to export establishments, low income women providing basic consumer goods commenced to go through. This resulted in a switch to careers in the work force as a income source. After the FTZs were unveiled, an intense acceleration of women entering the garment industry was seen, with 90 percent of area employees being female (Bolles 1996). These women were viewed as adaptable labor, and the businesses benefitted from their willingness to accept lower wages. Moghadem (1999) argues that women in developing countries tend to be more likely to work in labor-intensive companies at wages lower than men in worse conditions because of the fact that we now have so few opportunities for other career. Additionally with extreme poverty several women are required to find jobs to provide for their family, and because of this agree to allow the flexible pay of the FTZs. However, "individual" income are paid rather than "family" wages. (Standings 1989) This means that the women aren't being paid wages designed to support a family group, rather they receive basically enough to manage for themselves. This boosts a major concern, considering almost all of these women enter into the work force for the sole reason to aid their family. Furthermore, the TNCs take benefit of the leniency in laws given to them by the government. The film "Life and Debt" interviewed laborers in Jamaican free areas and problems of unfair taxes were dominant. The issue of low salary and unwarranted fees submit by the transnational businesses negatively impact the women laborers in Jamaica.

Not only does the structural modification programs and transnational corporations have economic results, but, the health dangers which coincide these free zones are also detrimental to women. The Structural Adjustment Programs were located upon growing countries such as Jamaica with demanding terms of how they are to be handled. Because these programs were tightly in location to produce economic progress, other general public services such as medical and education were typically ignored during economical planning. Independent Evaluation Group (2001) stated that as a result of these SAPs, the typical of living worsened. Because of the lack of regulation by the local government, TNCs have the ability to cutback in regards to meeting preset specifications. Relating to Bailey and Rickets (2003) many of the factories do not live up to the International Labor Business Decent Work Plan thus risking the personnel health. Fuettes and Ehenreich (1998) make clear how the health of employees is low on the priorities of the employers. With reaching quotas being the primary priority of these companies, the women working as laborers are forced to endure extended hours over tedious work with few breaks to be able to acquire their pay. "Life and Personal debt" further corroborates this by displaying the workers working in cramped warehouses exposing the need to work meticulously to be able to reach the times quotas. These women are forced to work up to 14 time each day, often without as time passes in order to reach the regular goals (Sparr 1994). As a result, the heavy impact on their physiques and intellects, this often brings about early retirement among young employees. Unfortunately, the long hours are not the only path used to reach the quotas for the day. These Jamaican women have to go through verbal and frequently times physical mistreatment in the workplace (Bailey and Rickets 2003). Another major health issue is the lack of attention to following a standards set in place by the U. S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Fuettes and Ehenreich 1998). This leads to these women working in hazardous conditions. For example there have been cases in textile business, with such cramped warehouses and poor investment in proper air flow, lung disease has become an issue among staff. Furthermore, there tend to be open storage containers of carcinogenic acids and solvents that emit poisonous fumes (Fuettes and Ehenreich 1998). Gleam lack of training among these employees and frequently times they must operate dangerous equipment, further causing dangers to health. The unsafe and health threatening conditions further demonstrates the harmful aftereffect of globalization on Jamaican women laborers.

Though the conditions of the free zones play a sizable role in expressing medical risks, the lack of benefits and coverage for the staff is also a significant factor. As the free areas are under different rules by the government, they are able to evade the rules set up for employee benefits. Many of the women are solo mothers and rely upon the pay bank checks to support their families, however, often times they do not have the entirety with their pay if indeed they take sick days (Bailey and Ricketts 2003). This pushes women to work despite health problems. Moreover, maternity leave is often not offered, or hardly any benefits is given with it, which results in women that are pregnant working in unsafe conditions because they haven't any other choice. Since the employers are specifically worried about their own income, they do not provide much in terms of health insurance (Bailey and Ricketts 2003). With the low wages to commence with, lack of health advantages makes attaining proper medical treatment extremely problematic for these women laborers. The lack of benefits provided is another facet of the damaging impact of globalization on female staff in Jamaica.

In addition to the economical and medical issues which occur from the Structural Modification Programs, there are cultural problems which are put in place because of this of globalization as well. In Caribbean culture, men have emerged as the breadwinner, while women are expected to be the homemaker. These stereotypes cause the idea of a "glass ceiling". This means that although women are forced to work as much as possible, they can only just move up so far, and in the case of Jamaican female staff, the ability to move

up is not a lot of. The creation of FTZs, while providing women into the workforce, has also stigmatized them. Occupations in these zones are sex-stereotyped, with ladies in the least safe and most affordable paid sectors (Bailey and Ricketts 2003). The Women's Border Coalition's research study describes how free trade impacted Jamaican women. They bring to attention that the impact is not gender neutral, and argue that women have been disproportionately afflicted in a negative way. The gender founded variations of free trade in Jamaica cause further problems for the women.

Another social aspect that is brought to attention by globalization is the patriarchal control in Jamaica. In the free zones, males carry superior positions over females. Erotic harassment is becoming difficult in these companies due to the little protection privileges of workers. Often times, women feel like they have no choice but to be submissive to their superiors if not their job would maintain threat (Fuettes and Ehenreich 1998). Women, however, are not only victims within the Free Zones, but due to the early on start times of the employees, rape while commuting has become an issue and fear between the personnel (Bailey and Ricketts). In addition, women tend to be used as subcontracted employees in the casual sector. While these women have the ability to maintain their home duties, they may be subject to a lot more government inspection than male business people and are less likely to succeed (Women's Edge Coalition). The already male dominated society becomes even more unfavorable for ladies workers due to free trade.

Finally, familial commitments and issues come up from the effect of globalization on women working in Jamaica. As stated earlier, women in Jamaica are anticipated to head family members duties. As a result, they become reliant on the husbands. However, alcohol and cigarette dependency of these men can lead to domestic violence, and this is an concern many of these women face off their spouses (Fuettes and Ehenreich). Willmore (1993) explores this idea further by detailing that a huge part of young women in Jamaica often become single parents, and because of the regular familial situations have the best unemployment rates. The need for these women staying at home make them finding suitable work a lot more difficult, thus, they choose to work in the Free Zones, where cheap feminine labour is exploited. Furthermore, Fuettes and Ehenreich (1998) make clear that "westernization" helped bring by these market sectors are often turned down by the families of these women. This leads to a difficulty to re-assimilate after retirement, which frequently occurs at a young get older. These familial concerns further support the thought of globalization's negative impression on women in Jamaica.

Globalization has taken many changes to the newly independent Jamaica, and though these programs and opportunities are initially viewed as positive contributions to the country, the women employed in Jamaica are the ones who undergo as a result. With the standard of living reducing amidst women laborers, the creation of Free Areas while initially seen as good for the country's overall economy has proved to be less helpful than identified. This paper shows that, through globalization, the united states of Jamaica has lost much of their control over their own operations to exterior global institutions that happen to be largely guaranteed by western countries, and the trickle down effect from the governmental level has resulted in increasing women's anguish. To be able to create a long long-term change, the Jamaican federal must have the ability to protect and improve the lives of their people and never have to worry about the threat of international investment leaving because of this. Along with this, legislation in Free Zones must be held up to criteria and closely monitored. Not only should the developing country's federal regulate the functions, but it is also up to the transnational corporations themselves to maintain a standard sense of human rights of their factories and warehouses. While these changes would be beneficial, there are several issues that may stand in the way. The deeply rooted patriarchal modern culture in which Jamaica is present poses a highway block in increasing equality, and can result in a long process to defeat the issue. Furthermore, while the idea of the transnational corporations monitoring themselves is a commendable one, their main priority remains to be that of income. This being said, they are likely to make renewable washing attempts to elude the exterior world rather than making important changes to better the lives of the feminine employees. Finally, from an financial position, no real change can be made before structural adjustment programs are reevaluated. The existing SAPs are manufactured so the developing country can never truly escape debts and are regularly dependent on the developed countries, and until this is modified, little can be carried out. While globalization is significantly being regarded as a positive change to the global composition, it will be an extended process for ladies laborers to feel that change.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)