'Operations Management as the process whereby resources, streaming within a precise system, are merged and transformed by a controlled manner to include value in accordance with regulations communicated by management - Joseph G. Monks

What is Procedures Management?

Operations management is the business enterprise function that is accountable for handling and coordinating the resources needed to create a company's products and services. All types of group must perform businesses management because all organizations produce some combination of products and services. Procedures management can be an important factor in virtually any organization. The decisions that the organisation makes will have a major impact on the price of the products and/or services, and its own delivery which results in the earnings coming into the business, whether it is manufacturing, retail or services industries such since it, finance logistics, transportation, healthcare or public power or educational, the service delivery pipelines must be carefully designed, resourced and supervised effectively and proficiently. The potency of the system is determined by the success with which various subsystems and components connect to one another and with the surroundings where the organization operates.

The core objective of a successful management is the ability to draw upon the resources of many disciplines and integrate relevant guidelines and track record information in order to determine and analyze a challenge. Once described, the manager must identify substitute possible solutions, consider these in terms of the broader goals and principles of the business, implement the evidently dominant solution, and finally, assess the actual consequences of the solution for the performance in the organization.

Operations management focuses on managing the techniques that produce / distribute products and services. Operations management pertains to all relevant procedures within the business. Related activities includes the next

Managing purchases

Inventory control

Quality control


Logistics and Evaluations

Customer Services

By analyzing the above mentioned activities, we can say that Procedures management consists of the systematic direction and control of the operations that transform resources (inputs) into completed goods or services for customers or clients (outputs).

History of Functions Management

The roots of operations management can be traced back through ethnic changes of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. By the finish of 18th century, agriculture was the productive and key element in every country. The technology of the heavy steam engine and Eli Whitney's concept of standardized parts paved the way for the Industrial Revolution using its large processing facilities power by heavy steam or water. Because of this variety of countries improved from an agricultural overall economy to an industrial economy. But also for a time, developing was more of a skill than a research. The Industrial Revolution advanced further with the introduction of the gasoline engine motor and electricity in the 1800s. Other market sectors surfaced and along with them new factories happened. .

The benefits of Taylor's method of clinical management and Henry Ford's moving assemblage line brought the planet into an era where management was mostly devoted to the production of goods. In the commencement of the 20th century, the one factor that was lacking was a management - the ability to develop and use the prevailing facilities to create on a sizable level to meet significant market segments of today.

Responsibilities of Operations Manager

Operations Manager's strategies, set up, lead and control the production and delivery of products and services as had a need to keep exterior paying customers satisfied. The duties of operations managers can be classified into the pursuing

Direct Obligations - the activities which are straight related to producing and delivering products and services like taking care of the functions process, embracing design, planning, control, performance improvement, and operations strategy

Indirect Obligations - the actions involved with interfacing with other areas of the organization such as getting together with those managers in other useful areas within the organization whose roles have an impact on operations. Indirect responsibilities also include other functions like marketing, finance, accounting, employees and executive.

Broad Responsibilities - a wider group of tasks that involve scanning the business, social and political environment where the organization exits in order to comprehend its framework.

Decision making is a central role of all operations managers. Decisions have to be manufactured in

designing the businesses system

managing the operations system

Improving the operations system.

The five main kinds of decision in each one of these relate with

the processes by which goods and services are produced

the quality of goods or services

the level of goods or services (the capability of procedures)

the stock of materials (inventory) needed to produce goods or services

The management of recruiting.

Operations Management Concern - Hewlett-Packard

HP is a technology company that manages in more than 170 countries worldwide. HP explores how technology and services can help people and companies solve their problems and issues, with the realization of the options that HP can offer, which will efficiently realize their dreams and requirements. HP applies new pondering and new ideas to create simpler, valuable and respected experiences with technology, continually improving just how our customers live and work.

The Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) was founded in 1939 by William Hewlett and David Packard. Today, the business's mission is to build info products that speed up the growth of knowledge and fundamentally improve effectiveness of individuals and organization. The business's first product, built-in a Palo Alto storage area, was an sound oscillator -an electronic digital test instrument utilized by sound engineers. Among HP's first customers because of this was Walt Disney Studios, who purchased eight oscillators to build up and test an ground breaking sound system for the movie Fantasia. HP becomes a significant player in the computer industry in the 1980s with a complete range of computers, from desktop machines to portables to powerful minicomputers. HP also made its accessibility into the printing device market with the launch of inkjet printers and laser printers that hook up to personal computers. The product quality and dependability of HP's printers make HP an extremely recognizable brand by both consumers and businesses.

Operational Problem of HP - Toner Cartridge Problem

Hewlett-Packard is proud of its reputation for high-quality products and services. Inside the 1990's, the Hewlett Packard toner and printer ink cartridges section was experiencing a difficulty with the number of faulty faulty toner cartridges being went back by customers. About 2000 of the were being returned on a monthly basis. The procedures team decided to investigate the problem and handed over the case to the united kingdom Hewlett Packard quality team. The team suspected that not all the profits were actually the consequence of a faulty product, which explains why the team decided to investigate the condition. The Hewlett Packard team made a decision to use cause-effect diagrams to identify the source of the situation. Three major functional problems were discovered.

First, some users were not as familiar as they must have been with the right method of launching the cartridge in to the printing device, or in being able to solve their own small printing problems.

Second, some of the HP Business Resellers were also unaware of how to sort out trivial problems as these were lacking in technological skills and training. As a result, they were unable to provide customer the level of support needed to resolve any minimal problems.

Third, there is clearly some maltreatment of Hewlett-Packard's 'no-questions-asked' comes back policy. Empty toner cartridges were being sent to unauthorized refilling companies who sell the refilled cartridges at reduced prices. Some cartridges were being refilled up to five times and were understandably deteriorating. Furthermore, the toner in the refilled cartridges had not been up to Hewlett-Packard's high quality specifications.

Theoretical Methodology of Analyzing HP Toner Cartridge Problem :

Fishbone Theory

Fishbone theory (cause effect diagram) is a total quality management tool, trusted to investigate and solve an operation management problem or effect in an company. Fishbone is considered as one of the seven basic tools of total quality management tool. It really is a visible presentational tool which resembles the skeleton of a fish which ultimately shows all the causes and its sub causes resulting in a specific problem. Using fishbone theory, problem and its causes can be graphically displayed, which can only help to identify and analyze the important causes and its own impact can be solved

Model of an Fishbone Diagram

History of Fishbone Theory

Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japan University Professor and a well known quality management innovator, invented the cause and result diagram in 1943, the idea became famous tool and was first used in 1960s and Japanese companies like Mazda, Kawazaki used to investigate and improve their car production processes


An operational management problem and its own causes can be visually provided so that every causes can be viewed as which helps to determine the primary cause of the condition in a organized approach. Quite simply, it helps to establish the condition (Result)

Fishbone can be utilized by individuals, teams & most effectively by teams that could ensure participation of all in an organization and really helps to utilize all possible and possible idea of the task and its reasons

Different process of an operating-system can be discovered even if it's outside the range of process.

All possible data can be collected for further analysis and its triggers and sub triggers can be assessed.

From the aforementioned HP Toner Cause Impact Diagram, we can classify that the Cartridge Profits is the result of the diagram and the causes can be sub divided into the following

Man Power

Customers and Retailers:- The Horsepower Investigation team learned that some customers were struggling in the right insertion of the cartridge into the printer body. It is universally considered that not absolutely all customers are officially sound and as a result of the, product malfunction could direct result while aiming to put the toners/cartridges. Customers who purchased the cartridges from retailers rather than directly from HP weren't technically qualified to solve minor issues which would have avoided the stock from being returned to Horsepower for replacement. Owner's Manual was not readable and acquired no step-by-step instructions. About 90-95% of toner consumers, do not read the owner's manual.

Dealers weren't able to supply the customers with the professional degree of support needed and frequently blamed the merchandise as faulty. This was due to the fact that HP didn't provide sufficient product training and support to its business resellers

Training :- HP should have provided the dealers with enough product support and training so that modest issues can be eradicated at the start. Inability in providing the retailers with product training could adversely influence the goodwill of HP. A product can be resolved successfully only when the sales and after sales support is maintained in a specialist manner.

Designers :- Product designers should consider the clients and dealers too as developing a complicated product (cartridge/toner) will make product unit installation complicated and if the company lacks resources for providing product training, it'll cause revenue to drop. The look of the toner cartridges was never thought from an end-user point of view. The toner cartridges was never analyzed with real people before the launch. Having less proper designing the product flow routine has caused a lot of money for HP. Another big company with such huge defects is Microsoft. Microsoft comes up with regular security patches from time to time to fix insects that existed in their Operating System. Customers always want what to be easy and less complicated. .


Non genuine Horsepower compatible cartridges that are made by unauthorized companies are being bought by customers for a cheaper price and applied to genuine Horsepower printers. As a result this causes damage to the printer brain over time. Use of non genuine toners, should revoke guarantee. HP didn't put in a disclaimer stating that warrantee can be revoked for using non-genuine Horsepower toners

Empty HP cartridges are delivered to unauthorized refilling centers by the customers and these cartridges are being refilled more than five times with low quality ink, toner and other areas.


Using Non Horsepower Printing device accessories such as print cartridges or toners could cause deterioration on the net result quality. The use of printers without proper maintenance causes faint print out and blotchy. This will generate uncertainties in customers that there are problems with the actual Horsepower hardware and frequently the merchandise is returned to Horsepower.


Policy - HP's 'no-questions-asked' results policy is motivating the customers to come back their cartridges even though the damage was induced by the customer or the supplier. No proper internal controls have there been for HP. It was discovered that Clear toner cartridges were being send to unauthorized refilling companies that used cheap quality refilling ink and techniques which damaged the product. HP's 'no-questions-asked' should be updated to say that after the toner cartridge has been altered or re-filled by external unauthorized dealers, no alternative would be provided.

Solutions to the condition - Prioritization Matrix

A prioritization matrix is a method used to get an thoughts and opinions about a problem. This matrix helps to priorities or list the issues of the condition relating to its importance. Prioritization matrix provides more plainly which issues are most significant to type it out

In a prioritization matrix the problems or problem can be written in the first column and its frequency, importance and the feasibility of the problems can be talked about in the next consecutive columns. the previous column should be utilized to estimate all the points

Frequency: it steps how frequently the situation occurs

Importance: it measures the value of the issue

Feasibility: it measures the feasibility of the problem whether the mentioned issue / problem is simple to resolve or not

Matrix description, Solutions and Referrals:

By like this, we can go through the data in the matrix and determine which issues are definitely more important based on the matrix. From all these HP Prioritization matrix it is very clear that in the first two issues, customers are unaware about the proper use of HP toner cartridges and insufficient product and support training to the business resellers offers highest concern in factors. Hence these two issues is highly recommended with an increase of attention. Another important issues are in HP's customer Services, processing flaws and their warranty guidelines. Design flaw, refilling genuine HP cartridges from unauthorized refilling centers and use of non Horsepower cartridges in Horsepower printers should also be considered and should be sorted out.

1) Customer Unawareness : HP should take into consideration that their Owner's Manual had not been easy to read and got no step-by-step instructions. About 90-95% of toner consumers, do not read the owner's manual. New methods like adding step-by-step video recording instructions in a Compact disk should be provided along with the print out toner cartridge. Clear and proper visual instructions provided in the users manual, smart software built-in inside the printing device can identify whether the situation is with printer or cartridge). Simple self maintenance tools should be provided combined with the toner / cartridge so that customer themselves can straighten out minor problems

2) Training for Business Resellers : HP should execute product training and support because of its business resellers after the product has been launched. Not absolutely all business resellers can attend the training because of the nature of their business but an available courtesy invitation send to all or any business resellers and their technical staff would help to improve customer issues and product recalls. Tests by Dell have proven that is the most inefficient and high budget way to cope with the situation. They have discovered that hiring local regional trained providers and sending parts to these providers to fix the issues have helped reduce their costs sustainably.

3) Customer Services : A proper trained call middle or support employees always really helps to boost the goodwill of any companies. HP should teach their support personnel to be fully alert to their products and conduct mock sessions to improve direct customer-supplier relations. Customer service workers should be technically qualified to resolve the issues devoid of asking more questions to the customer. Product survey questionnaires, support staff rating systems can be emailed to customers and their feedbacks should be carefully analysed by the sales and marketing departments. One other way to manage customer service is to refund customers the full amount or replace the product. .

4) Warranty / Policy : HP's 'no-questions-asked' dividends policy was motivating the customers to come back their cartridges even though the damage was triggered by the customer or the dealer Use of non genuine toners, should revoke warrantee. HP forgot to include a disclaimer stating that guarantee can be revoked for using non-genuine HP toners. HP must have also considered a first deposit fee for recycling their toners back again to Horsepower and also make sure a lesser cost service for refilling the toners.

5) Toner Cartridge Design : Product designers should consider the customers and dealers too as making a complicated product (cartridge/toner) can make product set up complicated and when the company lacks resources for providing product training, it will cause revenue to drop. Product was never thought from an end-user point of view. The merchandise was never analyzed with real people prior to the launch. The lack of proper designing the merchandise flow pattern has caused thousands for Horsepower. Another big company with such huge defects is Microsoft. Microsoft comes up with regular security patches every once in awhile to fix pests that existed in their OPERATING-SYSTEM.

6) Unauthorized Refilling / No Horsepower Cartridges: Using non HP computer printer accessories such as print out cartridges or toners may cause deterioration on the net end result quality. Customers favor going to cheap unauthorized resellers to refill genuine Horsepower cartridges because they are cheaper than going to an HP approved reseller or back again to HP base. After the printing device toner cartridges gives out issues and print quality reduces, customers come back the toner cartridges back to HP for replacing. Horsepower should make their toners Tamper evidence and also add some sort of Identification proofing to keep track of non-genuine consumption of Horsepower toners. Clear in depth description about HP product awareness provided along with the product would inform the client about the quality, advantages, advantages of an Horsepower and non HP toner cartridge.

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