Poverty and environmental degradation

The relation between poverty levels and environmental degradation has been extensively debated inside educational circles. The theoretical linkage between poverty and environmental degradation has for some time been shroud in ambiguity. Environment degradation and poverty are closely interrelated and inseparable, specifically in producing countries. Recognition and concern about environmental degradation have grown around around the world the previous few years; these concerns are distributed by folks of different nations, ethnicities, religions and social classes. Lately economic researchers have grown to be increasingly alert to quite implications that the talk about of the surroundings has for the success of development work. . (Michael P Todaro, Stephen C Smith, Economic Development)

it's been asserted that the conversation between poverty and environmental degradation can result in a personal perpetuating process in which, due to ignorance or economic necessity, neighborhoods may in advertently eliminate or exhaust the resources on which they depend for survival. (Michael P Todaro, Stephen C Smith, Economic Development)

According to Michael P Todaro and Stephen C Smith, environmental degradation can have severe repercussions on the indegent in expanding countries. They further conclude that since the way to environmental problems involve enhancing the output of resources and bettering living conditions among the poor, achieving environmentally sustainable growth is synonymous with achieving economic progress.

Poverty is considered a great influence on environmental degradation. In many parts of the developing countries, regional overgrazing has led to damage of grazing lands, forest and garden soil. Furthermore air and water have been degraded. It has been hypothesized that as people become poorer, they destroy the resources faster. By so doing have a tendency to overuse the natural resources because they don't have any method of success except through the natural resources. They therefore have a tendency to be dependent more on natural resources. An increase in poverty offers rise to an equal increase in environmental degradation in doing so necessitating the need to improve the quality of living.

Ghana is located on the western seacoast of Africa bordering the Gulf of Guinea with a 539-kilometer stretch out of coastline. The administrative centre, Accra, is situated along the seacoast. The country stocks edges with Togo to the east, Cote d'Ivoire on the western world and Burkina Faso to the north. Ghana protects a total section of 238, 537 square km (92, 100 square kilometers).

Ghana is well endowed with natural resources - platinum, timber, and cocoa - the major resources of foreign exchange, and recently learned olive oil in commercial volumes. The domestic economy is constantly on the revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 34. 7 percent of GDP and utilizes 56 percent of the task force, mainly smallholders. The united states has a complete of 170 metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies within its ten administrative regions and has about 22 million people. Most of the population is concentrated in the southern area of the country, with highest densities happening in urban and cocoa-producing areas. (USAID).

Ghana is swiftly urbanizing. Not surprisingly, almost all of Ghana's poor are in rural areas without basic services such as health care and clean normal water. Small-scale farmers, who are afflicted most by rural poverty in Ghana, rely upon obsolete farming tools and lack usage of improved seed products and fertilizers to increase crop yields.

Since freedom Ghana has had a long attack with poverty. There have been six development programs applied in Ghana since 1951. They have all generally sought to improve after the progress of GDP and guaranteeing an acceptable level of social and politics life for the united states. The newest and significant have been the Eyesight 2020 and The Ghana Poverty Decrease Strategy. ( Eugene Eluerkeh, 2004)

Environmental degradation is difficult to specify. In simple conditions environmental degradation can be reported to be the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, the devastation of the ecosystems and the extinction of animals. Poverty is the state of having inadequate access to one's success needs and basic cultural amenities which include food, clothing, shelter, education, a healthy body, employment, transportation, communication and other basic sociable services.

Poverty breeds disappointment, depressive disorder, helplessness, carelessness, insecurity, indiscipline, offense and battle to meet immediate success needs at the expense of long-term environmental benefits. This have difficulty for survival has been the major linkage of the indegent to environmental degradation such as deforestation, land degradation of seaside habitats and poor urban sanitation that keep perpetual poverty.

Poverty can be evaluated at the average person, household, community, region, regional and national levels in which particular case a nation's capability to provide the public needs of its people is used as a measure of its poverty status.

One out of five people on earth still live with $1 every day, and many coordinated effort

and dedication have been targeted to reduce the volume of poor people including the socalled

Millennium Development Goals: halving extreme poverty by the year 2015 (World

Bank, DFID, EC, UNDP, 2002).

As area of the conditions to be achieved for the realization of (HIPC) relief program, Ghana, like its counterpart countries, was to build up a Poverty Reduction Strategy Newspaper (PRSP) to indicate how monies accrued from joining (HIPC) would be used to alleviate poverty among Ghanaians.

The broad strategies layed out in the file included good governance, macro-economic steadiness, production, work, vulnerability and exclusion, and individual resource development. Unfortunately, however, the surroundings, which is the primary ingredient for success, growth and development had not been streamlined in the report.

Environmental degradation is because the strong inter play of socio-economic, institutional and technical activities. Environmental changes may be powered by many factors including monetary growth, population development, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, growing energy use and vehicles.

Poverty still remains issues at the main of several environmental problems.

Poverty is said to be both cause and effect of environmental degradation. The round website link between poverty and environment can be an extremely complex happening. Inequality may foster unsustainability because the indegent, who count on natural resources more than the

rich, deplete natural resources faster as they have no real leads of gaining access to other styles of resources.

Moreover, degraded environment can speed up the process of impoverishment, again because the poor depend on natural assets

Environmental sustainability should thus, be considered a key priority area inside our strategic strategies towards poverty alleviation. Within this framework therefore, the right linkage between your various specific environmental degradation and poverty must be more developed to the gratitude of most stakeholders.

In search of an explanation of the poverty- environmental degradation linkage, many studies have been done in this respect. In terms of metropolitan poverty, it's advocated that there surely is little proof it being truly a significant contributor to environmental degradation but strong research that metropolitan environ-mental risks are major contributors to metropolitan poverty (David Satterthwaite).

Most of the studies on the poverty-environment linkage have used panel data studies and therefore never have been country specific. This study thus aims to explore in detail the poverty-environment linkage with specific mention of the Ghanaian situation. It'll thus review the existing books on the poverty-environment linkage, offer an summary of the poverty and environment account in Ghana and try to provide policy advice suited to the Ghanaian situation.

Statement of Problem

Poverty in Ghana has for a long been considered an economical problem. Hence monetary policies that contain been developed haved not considered the environment. It really is however useful to consider the interplay between your environment and poverty in formulating procedures designed to alleviate poverty. Various studies established that there is some kind of dynamic interplay between your state of the environment and poverty levels. Hence it pays to to consider the impact of the various economic policies made to reduce poverty on the environment.

Significance of the study

The study will be of huge value to the market of Ghana. It'll attempt to explain the poverty-environment linkage in Ghana. The analysis will review the books on the poverty and environmental account of Ghana. It'll then explore the impact that policy reforms which may have been designed to alleviate poverty have had on the surroundings.

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to
  1. explore the poverty-environmental degradation linkage in Ghana.
  2. Explore the determinants of environmental degradation im Ghana.
  3. Elaborate on steps taken up to reduce environmental degradation in Ghana
  4. Evaluate the prevailing economic policies made to reduce poverty

Data and Methodology

The study use macro data on poverty levels and measures on environmental degradation. To achieve the above objectives the study will take up and change the model utilized by Shaista Alam in the study "Globalization, Poverty and Environmental Degradation: Sustainable

Development in Pakistan".

The model is given as

lnEGt= О0+О1lnPVRTt+О2lnFRTt+О3lnURBNt+О4lnPOPt+О5lnEDUt+О

where the variables are defined as follows

EGis environmental degradation, FRTis fertilizer utilization (in metric plenty), URBN is the pace of urbanization, POP is the population growth, PVRT signifies poverty, EDU is the education.

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