Risk management and hedging

Risk Management And Hedging In Derivatives Market

Risk management can be carried out in a number of different manners, which frequently is determined by the framework and initiatives for the specific firm. One commonly used strategy is to hedge in the derivatives market, which contains futures, forwards, swaps, CFDs, warrants, convertibles and options. Derivatives are financial musical instruments whose value and performance depends on the value of underlying assets, for example equities, currency markets indices, exchange rates, commodities etc.

The main argument for hedging is designed for companies to minimize risks that may arise from interest levels, exchange rates, and other market parameters and volatilities. By engaging in derivatives companies deal with their various hazards by hedging a posture, to become more certain what the results will be. For example, you can hedge a certain amount of currency at a future point in time, in order to learn how much that will be received/paid at the specific time - thus avoiding the threat of losing value due to exchange rate risk.

There are however also arguments against hedging in the derivatives market. Establishing hedging programs may be very costly, in case there are different and more cost efficient ways to lessen dangers, such as operational and financial strategies, that might be preferable. Furthermore, sometimes hedging may lead to deficits even though there is a gain on the underlying asset, which really is a situation that is difficult to explain to stakeholders. If losses appear too often, this could cause mistrust from the shareholders, and should then be averted. You have to consider the overall trade-off between costs and personal savings when engaging in hedging to manage and reduce dangers. Hence, it is also essential for management to undergo detailed risk assessments and to construct stable specific schedules, to be able to identify the most significant risks and eventually to establish risk preventing activities. Hedging is at addition mostly employed by companies that are extensively exposed to the many business and market hazards, and who almost all of enough time would reap the benefits of undertaking such actions. However, derivatives can also be used by the private sector if required.

The article Who Manages Risk? An Empirical Study of Risk Management Tactics in the Platinum Mining Industry by Peter Tufanoexamines a fresh databases that details corporate risk management activity in the North American yellow metal mining industry. The article promises that academics know amazingly little about corporate risk management practice, even though almost three fourths of organizations have followed at least some financial engineering techniques to control their exposures to intresest rates, foregin exchange rates, and commodity prices. There exists little empirical support for the predictive electric power of theories that view risk management as a way to maximize shareholder value.

The article furthermore represents risk management practices and tests their conformance with existing theory by examining an industry that seems almost tailor-made for educational research: the North American silver mining industry. These firms share the and clear visibility in that their result is a internationally traded, volatile item. Firms can control this exposure by using a rich set of instruments, including front and futures deals, gold swaps, yellow metal or bullion lending options, rolling ahead commitments called area deferred deals, and options. Perhaps most of all, firms in the gold mining industry disclose their risk management activities in great fine detail.

The platinum industry has embraced risk management: over 85 percent of the organizations in the industry used at least some sort of yellow metal price risk management in 1990-1993. Using industry-specific options for businesses' exposures, cost set ups, and investment programs, Tufano testing whether cross-sectional differences in risk management activity can be discussed by educational theory. For example, theory predicts more extensive risk management by organizations more likely to face financial stress, which in this industry can be measured by working costs and leverage. Other ideas posit that commercial risk management activities might be linked to risk aversion of corporate managers, and the proper execution where they maintain a stake in the organization. These theories would forecast that organizations whose managers maintain greater equity stakes as a small fraction of the private riches would become more inclined to control gold price risk, but those whose professionals carry options might be less likely to manage gold price risk. This information tests the predictive (in comparison with the prescriptive) electric power of the many theories, i. e. , whether they help describe the options made by companies. He confirms that gold mining firms' risk management decisions are regular with a few of the extant theory. Managerial risk aversion seems specifically relevant; the info tolerate out Smith and Stulz's (1985) prediction that companies whose professionals own more stock options manage less rare metal price risk, and those whose managers have more wealth committed to common stock manage more precious metal price risk. These results appear robust under a number of econometric requirements, and using a number of different proxy variables. On the other hand, theories that describe risk management as a means to reduce the expenses of financial stress, to break the firm's dependence on external financing, or even to reduce expected taxes are not reinforced strongly. He also detects that solid risk management levels seem to be higher for organizations with smaller exterior block holdings and lower cash amounts, and whose older financial professionals have shorter job tenures.

"Managing Foreign Exchange Risk with Derivatives"by Gregory W. Dark brown is a field study of HDG, a multinational creation company of durable equipment with sales in more than 50 countries that actively encounters 24 different money exchanges. Although multinational companies like HDG are always subjected to foreign exchange risk, this is one of very few studies that research the risk management procedures for a non-financial organization. Since multinational companies have a tendency to be very complex, when using multiple strategies, a field review of this nature provides a deeper knowledge of how the risk management process works. Dr. Brown attempts to response to three main questions. First he desires to understandhowthe Forex risk management program is structured; second, whythe company targets management of exchange risk; finallywhatHDG uses of their hedging derivative collection in order to reduce their forex risk.

In order to get a extensive understanding Dr. Brown investigated HDG over 14 quarters starting from 1995 and stopping in 1998. The composition of HDG's foreign exchange group consisted of 11 employees who were not considered "traders", with an average experience of 4 years, whose target had not been only hedging forex risk. The program cost which included salaries and over head was approximately $1. 5M yearly, and the entire transactional costs averaged around $2. 3M each year. HDG had an actual foreign exchange risk plan which focused to lessen transactional, translational, and overall financial exposures. To be able to meet this insurance plan the group positively engaged in place and forward deals, currency put option, and currency call options. Traditional financial theories usually illustrate hedging Forex risk for benefits such as minimizing taxable income, avoiding potential costs of financial stress, and reducing overall volatility of wealth. HDG however, focused its risk management program on smoothing out cash flow impacts, providing the company with competitive prices, and enabling better inner control management. In a few ways it looked like that HDG was attempting to use Forex risk hedging in a speculative attempt to increase potential income and therefore increase overall strong value.

The procedure used in Forex risk hedging was quite simplistic. The division would not use live market feeds but rather sources such as Bloomberg to symbolize a "hedge rate" from market rates and overall cost of derivatives. These details would then be handed onto the tax team and after review would be developed into a hedging strategy to forecast future hedging activity. Brown's statistical studies of HDG's hedging activities concluded that the model's R-squared value increased as enough time horizon decreased. This suggested that the firms hedging activity was drastically influenced by its most recent hedging transactions. This may seem rather evident but the best tests only suggested 55% in exactness. In all Dark brown explains there is a lot more in the form of testing that needs to beconducted to be able to better evaluate which additional factors significantly impact the Forex risk management of multinational non-financial companies. This analysis should be the start of a fresh inspection in understanding currency risk perspectives.

In 'Risk Dimension and Hedging: With and Without Derivatives', Petersen and Thiagarajan (2000) explore the reasons for two rare metal mining companies to utilize opposite techniques in taking care of their risk, namely American Barrick, which aggressively hedges its yellow metal price risk with derivatives, and Homestake Mining, which uses no derivatives. By learning two firms from the same industry, which barely has any variance in product quality, the essential distinctions that lead to the various methods in risk management can be examined.

Homestake Mining is targeted on developing its own properties and therefore, spends more on exploration costs (capital and labour costs), making high silver prices profitable if they're not correlated with exploration costs. The higher need of investment capital Homestakes Mining has when yellow metal prices are high makes reductions in the volatility of operating cashflow less valuable to it as a total hedging would take cashflow away when platinum prices are high, i. e. when Homestake Mining is in need of it.

The different opportunities companies possess of also describe some reasons for different risk management strategies. Homestake Mining has for example lower costs of altering the mining end result than American Barrick as the past can (over a brief period) alter the quality of the ore that is mined. This mining strategy creates costs that fluctuate positively with the price tag on gold and thus provides the organization with an all natural hedge, which American Barrick will not possess of.

As professionals will act diversely in line with the risk they are simply personally bearing, compensation strategies is of upmost importance as it pertains to risk management. Both the North american Barrick and Homestake Mining use options to web page link the managerial wealth to the shareholder riches, however, North american Barrick does indeed so more intensively. Also, its payment is equity-focused where in fact the bonuses are from the stock values, whereas Homestake Minings's bonus products are from the profitability, which is why the latter changes its costs as platinum prices change. The earnings are very volatile, however through this is reduced by different choices of accounting techniques, which 's the reason for Homestake Mining to changes them in other direction to gold prices, where American Barrick almost never alters its accounting choices at all.

From the aforementioned findings one may conclude that the decision of managing hazards depends upon various businesses' specific characteristics; their firm structure, management contracts and bonuses. Specifically, it is just a matter of the trade-off between costs and cost savings/benefits. Establishing and keeping derivatives program is often quite costly, and then the option of using other methods to hedge hazards may be more suitable.

In this article Hedging and Coordinated Risk Management: Facts from Thrift Conversions, the authors argue that the firms risk management may be used to reallocate the businesses total risk between different sources, alternatively than reduce it. So in this case hedging doesn't invariably equal total risk decrease as often stated, but rather a technique of risk-reallocation or as an essential part of an firm's profit-maximizing strategy. This becomes clearer if we isolate risk directly into two types, predicated on the activities where in fact the businesses have their comparative information advantages, particularly:

-Core business risk: Businesses earn rents or economical profit when planning on taking on activities bearing this risk.

-Homogenous risk: Financial risk as interest rate changes, foreign currency exchange rates, or commodity prices. By contrast there is no compensation for bearing this kind of risk. (This won't actually apply if the company has a comparative information advantage in the financial risk sector, then financial risk can then become center business risk.

If we have now consider a risky asset, it could be seen as a collection of multiple claims from the owners. These says are bundled collectively which fundamentally means that the company must undertake all the projects if it needs any of them. A subset of these jobs may be "core business tasks" which have a positive NPV for the firm, and the rest of the subset may be assignments bearing homogenous risk with NPV = 0 (the organization hasn't any downside/advantage in comparison to others in examining the unsystematic risk). The full total variability of your portfolios cash flow of course includes both risk types. An example of this may be a farmer anticipating payment for mating pigs. Then his superior equipment or pet animal feed prep would be grouped as activities bearing primary business risk, as the price of pork would be homogenous risk.

When increase in total risk is costly, risk composition becomes more important as the company value becomes a concave function of the expected cash moves. Therefore if the risky property was separable (which it is not), we would only seek to purchase positive NPV jobs with core business risk. However this is false and for that reason we can instead make a trade off by lessening homogenous risk while increasing additional contact with core business risk and still maintain the aim for degree of total risk. This substitution is named "coordinated risk management" and can be attained by the utilization of derivatives.

They test for coordinated risk management in a sample of thrifts that convert from the mutual to stock form of possession. These conversions have been used to recapitalize the thrift industry since 1982 where legal obstacles were cleared. From '83 to '88, 571 conversions issuing stock totaling over $10 billion were completed, compared to only 130 mutual-to-stock conversions between '75 and '82.

At the end of '82, stock saving and loans maintained only 30% of the industry's resources, but by the end of '88, stock cutting down and loans controlled 74% of the industry's total property, heading from $686 billion to $1, 4 trillion.

These converting thrifts provided an interesting sample to test whether the use of hedging can participate an overall technique to increase total risk. They argued that changing thrifts will attempt to increase their overall level of firm risk pursuing conversion anticipated to changes that occur at the time of conversion. In other words, these institutions are a distinctive case in accordance with empirical studies of risk management that focuses on firms with bonuses to diminish total risk.

The known reasons for converting establishments to increase total firm risk tend because of the two major reasons:

1. A converting institution's ability for taking risk increases at the time of conversion, even although investment opportunities do not change. It is because transformation provides financial slack and usage of capital market segments. A change typically proceeds at least the e book value of collateral of the mutual thrift. Let's assume that pre-conversion mutual equity meets regulatory capital requirements, doubling the administrative centre ratio creates a larger borrowing capacity that can be used to twin the advantage size of the thrift. Increasing thrift size will not necessarily imply an increase of thrift risk. However, thrifts usually have incentives to grow by investing in riskier property because of toned deposit insurance premiums that allow thrifts to alter risk to the federal government.

2. Converting establishments are predicted to increase the total firm risk following due to change in their professionals' incentives for risk taking. Before the conversion, managers receive a predetermined salary. But upon conversion, shareholders have the ability to include stock and commodity in a manager's reimbursement deal, aligning the professionals' interest with the shareholders. In this example, the director will typically be more willing to take chances in order to maximize organization value.

The Test

Schrand and Unal has used test data from conversions completed between January 1, 1984 and Dec 31, 1988. They have also made some selecting in the test excluding the supervisory mergers and merger-conversions. Also they further exclude smaller companies insurance firms the very least limit of $100 million among the sample company's. As of the methodology Schrand and Unal have used a quantitative time-series analysis, where they have examined the changes altogether risk, interest-rate risk and credit risk using a typical least squares method.

The model is a form of a least squares method where they may have added the term Time(t+k). The excess term is an indication variable which is equal to one if one fourth t is k quarters from the change quarters, and if not the term equals zero. By the independent variables in the model, they can be seen as exams, indicating the differences between the risks of the average converting establishment and the risks of the common institution in the control group.

However the model doesn't show if the interest risk and credit risk are coordinated. Therefore Schrand and Unal have used another model to analyze if there is an association between the interest risk and the credit risk. The model which is a pooled time-series cross-sectional regression is computed as follows:

Here Schrand and Unal anticipate an optimistic slope between the interest risk (XSNET) and the credit risk (XSHIGH).

The Empirical Results

The research show that the switching institutions capital position raises with around 70 percent after the conversion. Also the analysis demonstrates the converting establishments significantly decrease their exposure to interest risk. Nevertheless the Credit risk increases when converting, because of taking more risk in their loan portfolios. Further the study reveals that the investment habits are related to the actual conversion as opposed to the time-trend within the industry. Also they conclude that the increased use of derivatives is a tactical decision rather than a mechanical occurrence.


Brown, G. W. (2001), "Managing forex risk with derivatives", Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 60, pp. 401-448.

Naik, N. Y. , and P. K. Yadav (2003), "Risk Management with Derivatives by Traders and Market Quality in Administration Relationship Market", The Journal of Money, Vol. 58 (5), pp. 1873-1904.

Schrand, C. , and H. Unal (1998), "Hedging and Coordinated Risk Management: Information from Thrift Conversions", The Journal of Finance, Vol. 53 (3), pp. 979-1013.

Tufano, P. (1996), "Who Manages Risk? An Empirical Examination of Risk Management Tactics in Yellow metal Mining Industry", The Journal of Financing, Vol. 51(4), pp. 1097-1137.

Petersen, M. A. , and S. R. Thiagarajan, (2000), "Risk Management and Hedging: With and Without Derivatives, " Financial Management, Vol. 29(4), pp. 5-30.

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