Keywords: laissez faire overall economy government, mixed overall economy government
1. 0 Introduction
Economic systems known as 'Laissez faire' current economic climate, capitalist or free business. Types of financial systems include Central planning economy, mixed current economic climate and free market current economic climate. Central planning current economic climate all interest or previous decision making by the government, such as system was called 'demand current economic climate' because there is lack of choice. The combined economy an assortment of both the free system and the designed system, the combination can vary in a individual economy over an interval time. In intervening, their state provides general population goods and service, merit goods, subsidized goods and more. The free overall economy was an exclusive possession, they can freedom of choice and they can buy whatever tools of production, equipment, buildings or stock are had a need to carry on business for other private purposes. They can trade these possessions as they like. Financial systems decisions about source of information allocations are dependant on the market pushes of demand and offer. Example resources are allocated through the purchase price device. Consumer have interest to make decision what want to buy and producers likewise have interest to make decision what want to create.
2. 0 Mixed economy
Malaysia is a blended market, except Malaysia mixed market country include India, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapura, AMERICA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, etc. . . are examples of combined economies. Mixed current economic climate means is privately possessed businesses and authorities both play important jobs. In Malaysia, the federal government at many parts to do many quest and make many benefit for us. As an illustration, to protect the population and to maintain private organization, to help control and control the method of development. Besides that in merged economy, the government decides on reference allocation of scarce commodities. Example inside our living thing daily day needs such as cloths, grain, water, sugar, sodium, oil. These the government will attempt to provide and also can reduce the price for all of us to buy in blended economy. Once the economy has problems, the government will intervene especially to implements development polics. Example when truth the economy tough economy, the government will intervene to help and solve the challenge. In Malaysia, the market efficiency need is based to both of private sector and the government. In addition, incomes of workers in some sectors are handled by administration are equality and can follow each of person potential and level. And at the service section, if the some privatised the government will provides some basic service, example when Chinese language New 12 months celebrate by the some guild or group under the YB, the federal government will provide the site and implement must decorate or even more.
2. 1 Factors of Market failure
Malaysia is a combined economy tries to incorporate the benefits of Free Organization System and the Central Command line System. Reality, the purchase price often will instability increase and lower follow market condition. The price along are related with demand and offer, because when the supply more than demand, the price will move down the surplus occurs same as when the demand more than resource, the purchase price will be rise up the scarcity will be occurs hence causes the price are instability. In addition, factors of market inability include inequality in the circulation of income, it was really affects the price of price and market failing. Example the dissimilarities of learning resource include land, labour and capital, and inequality of knowledge and opportunity, sociable cost of development, monopoly power and even more. images. jpg
2. 2 Methods to intervene by government
The price device is allowed to operate but sometimes the price mechanism fails or works against public interest. Government intervention in the purchase price system main important has price control and the price control include price floor and price roof and the purchase price mechanism related to demand and offer. Supply and demand curves have to be combined. Supply this can be a relation expression the quantity of well-defined good that companies are prepared and able to sell at various prices throughout a given time period, other things constant. Along with the demand it is relations expression the number of a well-defined good that consumers are willing and able to buy at each possible price during a given time frame, other factors being constant.
- Price ceiling and price floor
What is the purchase price floor and price roof? Price floor means is the purchase price must be minimal price in a cost, the price is fixed by the government. Including the price of olive oil must minimum at above RM17, cannot below this price because if the purchase price more cheaper the demand will more than resource and lack will happened, the producers will improve the price and earn more profit that will cause instability of equilibrium price. And the price roof means is the price must be maximum price in a price. Including the price of local car, myvi the price maximum be 40, 000, cannot higher the price again it is because if our higher the price, then the system of car no worth the purchase price, the demand will certainly reduce and the price of our local car will sell curve will down and surplus occurs.
- Control section of supply
As a researcher, I investigated one of factors triggers the market failure was the advertisement company, why I said like this? Because the advert company often make the advertisements when push-off the new product and will misguide the buyer go to buy something what no need and indirect to introduce the product. For example, a firm push-off a pencil of new product and it want to multiply its new product and undoubtedly through the mass media is the largest can allow bulk of men and women know. If the advert company make ad they will make some impact at the newspaper or video moreover a few of them will make the image with the original are different, example they'll bright the outside shade of pencil then your consumer minds the colour is more bright then start to see the indeed colour are not same. So the federal needs intervene to control the source and limited their some product must be show original to consumer see or design must be considered a limited. Actually the reasons of the federal government intervene was to better for market failure, to attain the equitable circulation of income and wealth, and promote the performance of economy in market. Ways intervene of administration inside our country has
- Reduce the land tax
Because if the land taxes are usually more expansive it'll cause scarcity of resources. Including the farmer uses the lands cultivate fruit and vegetables if the land tax is higher, they earn income pay the land taxes and cannot cover the expenses in living they would not choose agriculture then the quantity of vegetables will lower, so fruit and vegetables need to import from foreign country and the price of vegetables increase it will impact the price system.
- Change tax in a few things
Change tax in a few things. For example restaurant in Jusco, whenever we go to consume the restaurant will change tax for administration, that for to do it is control the buyer expense and the money take from taxes is use at other place for promote or help the who poor.
- Direct provision of goods and services
The government also can direct provision of goods and services. The government may be used to provide some goods and service and general population goods to the populace in the united states. For example, the federal government can compensates private sectors companies to help who are the people must reduce needless for apply but list of guidelines and ensure that individuals are really needs to help.
- Subsidies and welfare payments
The administration has provides subsidies to consumers then the price will low in merit goods. When the government provides subsidies on something that will triggers a rise in market source and leads to a lower equilibrium price. As well as the welfare payments can be used to influence the entire syndication of income and wealth, example higher the worthiness in richer homeowners for and boost the value of welfare benefits for the indegent to help make the tax and gain system better.
3. 0 Conclusion
These means of intervene by federal to correct for market failure and maintain the purchase price mechanism balance. To be a summary, as a researcher I gain and learned about more the intervene by the government in mixed economy. And ways of let market success example wider variance of products, due to market system's competitive environment, business must conform promptly to improve in consumer demand and adjust their production programs accordingly. The actual to widen markets and gain increased gains results in the quality of goods and service being constantly improved and up-dated. Therefore not only provides a wider choice and better quality of goods and service but also overall flexibility in the nature of production. Moreover, I also gain intervene by administration also has drawbacks. Example federal government may allocate creation resources inefficiently. For example allocate resources to non-growth market sectors where consumer is relatively fragile also at least will hold-up monetary growth. And also the government authorities are respond gradually to changes on the market conditions. But above these has an important in many current of price device ways for example decisions which resources of energy we rely on in future years.
In the economic globalization, economics is the study of how individual social cyan spread monetary resources to meet up with the needs or the individual restriction is not limited and endless economic resources unlimited human needs producing shortage occurs, but monetary is a field that studies how individuals and societies face the challenge of lack. The economy is a system and is also interrelated with a number of other cultural systems. The economics include eight systems but are not limited, which part are monetary, political, religious, communal, geographic, demographic, legal, and moral systems. The economic include economic growth, exchange rates, inflation rates and other. For example interest rates have an impact on cost of a company and affect capital and investment so from what located in a company grows and enlarge. In the part of 19th century, the political current economic climate became 'economics' and political current economic climate is how and what level a authorities intervenes throughout the market example tax policy, labour rules, trade constraints, tariffs, political stableness, goods and service. The religious system is needs to understand perception and culture with each spouse whether from international country or local country in the economics range. Plus the social system include more different section which are cultural areas, health understanding, population growth rate, era distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safe practices. The geographic is approximately like earth's surface, physical features, divisions, product, people and etc. Next is demographic, this means was include era, gender, elevation and weight about feature of person for in a community over a period. And the second previous is part of legal, include discrimination legislations, consumer rules, antitrust law, career law, and health and safety regulation. These laws can affect how a company manages, and product needs from demand. The past of moral system, moral in the economics need to ensure individual employees, commercial management, plans and procedures. Besides, economy comes from the Greek term, nomos so this means oikou and household rules.
Background of 'The science which studies individual action as a romance between ends and scarce means that have alternative uses'
This sentence identified by Lionel Robbins. Lionel Robbins, full name was Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, and he was created in 22 November 1898 and loss of life in 15 May 1984. He was a British isles economist and head of the economics team at the London School of Economics. He's known for his proposed classification of economics, and then for his implement work.
2. 1 Analyze 'The technology which studies human behavior as a romance between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses'
This sentence description by Lionel Robbins. Scarcity means that available resources are inadequate to meet all wants and needs. Human desires and needs are unlimited whereas the resources available to fulfill these needs are limited. In the number of website, I looked the primary point of Lionel Robbins's meaning have four importance point and on basis of theory from Lionel Robbins. These point was Lionel Robbins through in our live infer and gain. The first is The Human desires or ends are unrestricted. I agree with the fact this important point, because the technology economy section growth continuously, so naturally the typical living level will follow the era upgrade and human wants are endless. They increase in amount and quality over a period. They vary among individuals and overtime for the same person. Now common impossible to discover a one who will say in living things whatever are food, clothes or material are completely satisfied. This is because when our get it satisfied in a place then we will feel it other place are not enough and that not end take action. The second point is the ends or desires vary in importance. Necessaries, comforts and luxuries are definitely more importance for humans. Next, the main point is scarcity of resources. The resources include have land, labour, capital and businessman. Scarcity is a genuine and direct in the life span. It occurs among the poor and the abundant. For example the richest person on the planet encounters scarcity because he too cannot gratify all things his wants. The past importance point is financial resources have different uses. The fourth important proposition of Robbins description is that the scarce resources open to satisfy human wishes have substitute uses.
2. 2 Resources (factors of creation)
Economics is offered from two perspectives. One perspective is the technical evaluation of the procedures by which scarce resources are allocated for competing ends. An alternative point of view is the social framework of provisioning. Each country has certain resources (called factors of creation), usually the economics split four categories which are land, capital, labour, and business owner. Land means is include all natural resources. Example timber, mineral, rivers and we can use land develop fish pond for feeds the fish, cultivate the fruit and vegetables, fruit, trees and shrubs on the land and get out variously of engine oil from the land.
The second capital is who person made things used to produce other things or take goods and produced in economy after to create other goods and services. Example the machines, tools and set ups for especially use at factories, the tractors can help the employees when need to move things of heavy to other place or the sewing mechines can help the tailor save the time and to finished with rapidly to produce a dress or cloths or part of hard to use hand to do. They are capital goods.
Next the labour, labour means is personnel or contains the physical and mental abilities of individuals. Example the production potential of designers, secretaries among others producing output, and at the many section such as with the music section, the musician is a labour and at the house mom help our wash the cloths and prepare food dishes for us that mom called housewives, and in manufacturer or company people who just work at here called labours.
Output means is what's produced and can be divided into goods and services. Goods is tangible can touch and analyze. Example the cloths, drinks, furniture, food, and everything manner of living things use for us. As well as the service is intangible and can feel it. Example, barber service, computer repair, legal service and secretarial services.
2. 3 Financial Decisions
In the idea, the resources are separate into their highest respected uses. Supply, demand, interest choice, costs, benefits, production of associations and exchange are tools that are being used to spell it out and analyze the marketplace processes by which individuals
separate the scarce resources to meet as many desires as you can. The three basic questions that are asked in the analysis of the monetary decisions which are What things to produce, in the market economy, the decision in what is produced would be separately. Example decide what product can be produce and need what attribute it will appeal to the consumer buy it then the firms will make out what consumers need it.
And the How exactly to produce, the providers will check the list what product was the consumer favourite and bear popular before make out the product. They'll earn more profit. Normally the producers will use least cost to produce these products and it'll cause competitions in market.
And for WHOM are the goods and services produced, people that have the biggest incomes are those who get the biggest share of what's produce. Example owners of olive oil wells, doctors own open the medical center, owners of irons and mines.
And other two question respect to economical issues I looked from website, I believe both of these question it useful in monetary decision, that are JUST HOW MANY Product goods should be produce, not necessarily the products must be produce same product or volume so whenever we wants to produce a product must be ensure the number must produce is right and since not everything can produced, some goods will sacrificed for other goods
The second is WHEN the goods to produce, the time that a good can be obtained may affect its value. Suppliers will need to have their new equipment ready for the skiing season and must be find right time to available new product of these and also need to know other part is when would like to us to provide the goods for their manufacturing plant it can avoid needless conflict.
2. 4 Opportunity cost
Opportunity cost created by Jonhnson Nakano. Opportunity cost means same as scare means. Opportunity cost pays to when want to choice or assess the price tag on choice. And opportunity cost is the cost related to the higher right choice to who people has selected among these mutually exclusive options. Opportunity cost a key principle was economics. This description expressing 'the basic romantic relationship between scarcity and choice'. Choice has choice choice, choice choice means is has many choice can pick. The concept of opportunity cost plays important of part ensure the scarce resources are successfully. And scarcity necessitates trade-offs, and trade-offs result in an opportunity cost, the chance cost of a conclusion is must abandoned best alternative as a result of your choice. For example, somebody who mind to continue study for increase his future making potential and also to quit his job, when to give up his job then his will lost wages for the period of time these are in college. Oppositely, if indeed they select to keep employed and not return to college then the opportunity cost of that action is will lost the wage to increase. It can like say when get a thing as same time will eventually lose a thing. But something is required to choose, because the thing is limited. Any decision includes between two or more also has a chance cost. Including the earth lack of normal water now need to choose want to drink this particular for quench thirst or want use the shower for clear and comfortable, then must be choose for quench thirst because this are limited if no to drink normal water will death.
3. 0 Conclusion
The meaning of economics given by Robbins has uncertainty certain flaws. However, it is more detailed in describing the condition of resource utilization. As a conclusion, I learned a whole lot of definition the word 'The knowledge which studies real human action as a romantic relationship between ends and scarce means which have different uses' by Lionel Robbins and gain more knowledge, one of was I gain it at the technology overall economy, no have what needs or want is will end do it so we have to a contented head is a perpetual feast with a heart and soul in the prosper world.
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