The Advanced Processing Technology Strategy Economics Essay

Academic corporations need to exhibit the appropriate flexibility to meet the needs of industry. This descriptive research seeks to recognize the problems both in the private sector and in the education sector with regards to engineer training and utilise the advantages of both to provide a solution. The study highlights the current expansion of the processing sector and the continuing skills difference. It identifies the issues experienced by the manufacturing industry and also changes that can be designed to the further education training curriculum. Investigations of the influences of the executive training and the factors influencing training and that inhibit or aid the engineering training were done. Predicated on experience and many discussions with the private and education sector with regards to the particular problems becoming confronted by those attempting to use advanced creation technology it is hoped this document will create a lively argument between the private and open public sector. This paper fulfils an identified training need and offers a practical means to fix overcome a nationwide skills shortage.


Manufacturing is important to South Africa. It contributes over 15% of the nationwide gross domestic product (GDP), [1], over 50 % of most exports and it is the second largest employer. As important as it is, there are indications that the creation sector is within drop, as evidenced by

A declining value-add from the sector (5. 2% in 2007 compared with 2. 6% in 2008)

A declining rate of change in making export growth

A remarkable decline in gross domestic permanent investment in the sector between 1991-1996 and 1996-2005

A minimal labour intensity

A decrease in employment across the sector

The South African Federal, in recognizing the value of manufacturing throughout the market, recently developed two strategies: the Country wide Research and Development Strategy (NRDS), [2] and the Integrated Processing Strategy (IMS), [3]. The ex -, released by the Office of Research and Technology (DST), [4], aims at making certain technology resources are better developed, concentrated and utilized. The latter, by the Team of Trade and Industry, identifies that South Africa's future competitiveness will rely upon the capacity of the creation sector to master advanced technology domains, to innovate and meet the correct needs of customers.

The IMS identifies the necessity to move from uncooked material-intensive produced goods towards progressively more knowledge-intensive goods and services. The NRDS regards Technology and Technology Missions as central elements for accelerating economical progress, the creation of wealth on a ecological basis, and the improvement of quality of life of South Africans.

South Africa's traditional market sectors have been resource based, particularly in minerals. Today most minerals are exported in major metal forms, the key exception to the being fabricated steel structures. This avoids South Africa from reaping the full benefit for its very rich resource base. Production can truly add value to these exports by switching ores to major metals and primary metals to higher value-added produced products. Making will also match the service sector. High-value manufacturing will generate demand for the provision of technology-intensive services. Alternatively, failure to upgrade resource-based industries can make South Africa susceptible to the global style of deteriorating conditions of trade for product producers, which has been evident over the last few decades. Thus manufacturing can be seen as an important catalyst for the upgrading of the complete economy.

The goals and objectives of the National Advanced Developing Technology Strategy are to

Develop a eyesight of the scientific profile of the professional sector in the entire year 2014

Identify main concern sectors that have the greatest potential for encouraging relevant goals within the IMS and the NRDS. These goals include countrywide and cultural goals such as job creation and equity

Stimulate technical upgrading in industry

Facilitate the move of technical resources to industry through new knowledge networks to foster innovation

Facilitate the building of an environment conducive to development, particularly through the way to obtain skilled manpower, technology infrastructure and funds.

The strategy originated through extensive consultation within the private, general population and education areas, and good care was taken to ensure strategic fit with other countrywide strategies and the avoidance of unnecessary duplication. The methodology (see Body 1) made certain

Wide consultation with industry, local and international science councils, Tertiary

Education Organizations (TEIs), labour and federal government; and

Learning from international guidelines and functions - successes and failures.

The need for human source of information development is crucial in each one of the three key requirements

for producing the developing sector. That is demonstrated in Amount 1.

The available evidence indicates that there is indeed a substantial demand for people with skills, [5], which is not matched by their availableness. Factors such as financial growth, sectoral degrees of labour power, projections of world wide web migration, sectoral get older profiles, the business enterprise cycle, government expenses decisions, projections of HIV/AIDS morbidity rates, industrial policy and foreign direct investment, all impact this supply and demand active, [6]. Lacking any understanding of the dynamics of the skills environment, it isn't possible to plan correctly. The results of skills imbalances are undoubtedly negative. This needs to be corrected by using a give attention to industry-driven and academics institution supported human tool development.

A well developed Further Education and Trainining (FET) sector in South Africa will without doubt make a considerable contribution to the envisioned financial growth of the country, [7]. The explanation for this is that this sector can be found at the intersection of a variety of government policies, that happen to be critical to the new information-based current economic climate [7]. Included in these are macro-economic, industrial, labour market and human resource development procedures. Federal government coordination across these domains is paramount to their success and to the establishment of an insurance plan framework which will promote the development of the real human capacities, knowledge and skills of our people.

Moreover, as we plan the 21st century, FET is fast becoming an important strategic push, in a framework where a country's potential to compete effectively in the global market increasingly will depend on the data and skills of its people, [8]. The pace of clinical and technological progress, and the obstacles and opportunities of the info age, mean that high quality education and training, and lifelong learning, are essential if South Africa is to keep abreast of changes in the type of knowledge and in ways of production.

Skills education training specialist (SETA) research have determined middle level skills needs in their areas and put in place strategies to addresses them, particularly by using the general public FET universites and colleges of technology working in partnership with employers providing workplace-based training.


A meaning of Further Education and Technology (FET)

The general public FET college system is central to the government's program of skilling and re-skilling the children and people. Its transformation is paramount to the integration of education and training and responding to the abilities needs in our country. In recent years, FET schools have been trying to make the transition using their former status as technical colleges to being reactive and radiant post-school establishments for vocational education.

FET contains all learning and training programmes from National certification framework (NQF) Levels 2 to 4, or the same as Marks 10 to 12 in the school system. It is the music group within the NQF which practices directly on Basic education and training (GET) and precedes advanced schooling (HE). Learners enter FET following the completion of the compulsory phase of education at Quality 9 or Level 1 of the NQF. 3. 2 FET is not compulsory education, [9]. By explanation, it has no time limit. Its goal is to market lifelong learning and education on-the-job. FET is provided immediately or through distance education by public schools, public colleges, independent colleges and on-the-job coaches. This research only focussed on open public college FET.

The mission of FET is to foster intermediate to advanced skills, lay the building blocks for HE, facilitate the

transition from university to work, develop well-educated, autonomous citizens and offer opportunities for

lifelong learning through the articulation of learning programs.

State of the industry - forecasts

In the Industrial Development Record for 2011 of the US Industrial Development Company (UNIDO), the competitiveness of 87 countries was motivated using an index called the Competitive Industrial Performance Index or CIPI. South Africa's rating in '09 2009, slightly below Brazil and India(CIPI scores of 0. 202 to 0. 206) BRICS counterpart, [10]. An increasing competitiveness is the reason that justifies technological upgrading; the main factor of the Technological Eyesight for South Africa should be the achievement of a considerable upgrading of the CIPI index by 2014, [11]. The most likely indicator because of this strategy is technology intensity, thought as technology spending per capita. The latter includes local Research and Development R&D as well as the acquisition of foreign technology.

Much attention has been focused on the utilization of computer-integrated making systems (CIMS) and advanced processing technology (AMT) as it can be solutions, partly, to the much discussed problem of the of competitiveness of South Africa manufacturers.

Advanced Processing Technology

The advantages of CIMS and AMT such as increased overall flexibility, increased quality, shorter product development times, etc [12]. Have already been extensively accepted, however, SA manufacturers have been poor to look at these systems.

Computer-integrated making systems (CIMS) have been commonly defined as the use of computers, information technology, automation, and folks in the integration of developing systems. A specific explanation for CIMS that all interested people can agree after has been elusive. A representative meaning for CIMS is given by [13]

Computer integrated processing (CIM) is the word used to describe a automation of the manufacturing plant. Its target is not full automation, but running a profitable business by: (1) achieving a productive balance through the integration of individuals and automation, and (2) using such solutions as a repository and data communication to incorporate the design, developing, and business functions that include the automated segment of the stock.

This definition allows some versatility in identifying whether a specific service constitutes CIMS. Such versatility is necessary due to dissimilarities in individual characteristics of employing companies. An alternative definition is given by Gunn [14]

Computer integrated creation (CIM) signifies the integration of all information involved with making from product and process design through developing planning and control, development, syndication, and after-sales service and support. CIM is absolutely vital to accomplish top notch quality, speed, overall flexibility, and productivity.

This definition presents the more slim view of what constitutes CIMS. Regardless of what specific definition can be used, CIMS can generally be looked at to be the use of pcs, automation, information technology, and people found in an integrated fashion.

The following symbolizes the solutions and components frequently used in CIMS implementations

Computer -aided design (CAD)

Flexible developing systems (FMS)

Cellular manufacturing

Group technology (GT)

Computer numerical control (CNC)

Computer aided manufacturing (CAM)

Computer aided process planning (CAPP)

Automated materials handling


Just-in-time (JIT)

Manufacturing tool planning (MRPII)

Material need planning (MRP)

The same problems found in defining CIMS are also uncounted in determining advanced making technology (AMT). Specifically when comparing meanings for AMT it becomes unclear whether AMT is part of CIMS or CIMS is part of AMT, for the purpose of this study, AMT will be thought as the utilization of technology in developing in such a way that the integration requirements of CIMS aren't met. Quite simply AMT is similar to CIMS in the technologies used but comes lacking CIMS in conditions of integration. Therefore a company that has implemented anything from an individual CAD station to intensive islands of automation is using AMT.

The books generally agrees that AMT can be described widely as a group of computer-based technologies, which includes computer-aided design, computer-aided processing, making resources planning, robotics, computer aided process planning (CAPP), materials need planning (MRP II), group technology (GT), flexible manufacturing systems, automated materials handling systems (AMS), computer numerically managed (CNC) machine tools, and bar-coding or other automated identification techniques, [15];[16];[17];[18];[19]; [20][21];[22]. The authors' research is applicable the existing classification of AMT but expands this to add any technology, which is new or advanced to an organization in comparison with its prior or current manufacturing technology. The study targets the hard form of AMT as well as very soft technologies when they are inlayed in hardware somewhat than being moved independently.


A purposive sampling technique was employed and previous knowledge was found in selecting the respondents or FET colleges to be sampled. Questionnaires were ready and sent to targeted individuals by mail and in print form. The data gathered were analysed by using an Excel Spread sheet and charts. The distinctions observed between the teams were then attributed more to the adjustable appealing.

Findings and Discussions

The Southern African FET sector faces lots of issues; one of the challenges facing the FET sector is one of notion that FET schools are inferior corporations producing low-status requirements. Despite noble tries by the federal government to increase the FET system the doubt remains in the united states about the magnitude to which FET universities should be looked at as suited alternatives to raised education. Another obstacle facing the FET sector is the fact that a great number of teaching personnel at FET colleges are either under-qualified or unqualified. Regarding to available reports, in 2002, eight percent of FET teachers weren't in possession of a accepted tertiary certification, [23]. Lecturers in FET schools with the necessary trade and industry experience generally do not hold formal teaching skills, [23].

The research shows that there is evidence of AMTs technologies being taught in FET establishments, the graph Shape 2, shows the amount of AMTs solutions per organization, FET 1 has three AMTs particularly AMS and MRP, and FET 8 gets the highest quantity of AMTs. The research shows that there are no CNC lessons being offered in all FET public universities and there is no consistence in the number of AMTs trained per institution. A lot of the FET laboratories consist of islands of AMTs, with only one organization (FET 8) showing a higher degree of integration in Figure 3. Level 0 - means that there is no integration, Level 1 - integration of 2 AMTs, Level 3 - integration of 3 AMTs. The level of AMT integration in FET institutions shows the level and depth of appreciation of advanced manufacturing technology curriculum in further education companies.

Figure 2. AMTs per institution

Figure 3. Level of integration

Conclusion and Recommendations

Expertise in FET instructing staff is a required precondition to meet up with the advanced processing technology strategy targets. An advanced making technology concentrate in FETs requires a significant resource commitment to derive suited economies of size or scope; this will probably apply to capital equipment extensive creativity and critical interactions between technology providers. Developing a regular curriculum in-line with advanced developing technology strategy is also very important in FET executive programmes.

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