The Determinants of the Demand for Shipping Services

Chapter 1

God must have been a ship owner. He positioned the raw materials definately not where they were needed and covered two thirds of the earth with drinking water - Erling Naess

1. 0 Release - The need for shipping on the globe economy

Shipping can be explained as the physical movement of goods and people to the plug-ins of demand from the ports of supply. It also involves all the related activities necessary to support and help such movement. The movements of goods by sea is the economic lifeblood of several nations. It is because around three-fourth of the earth's surface is protected with normal water, thus shipping takes on an important role in world trade. Lots of the commodities that are transported by sea are usually raw materials that happen to be heavy, dense and have low monetary value such as the loves of coal and flat iron ore. Transporting these goods over great distances by boats is cheap and inexpensive. Ocean transfer costs are relatively cheaper in comparison to other method of transport and there's also no substitutes to delivery. On the other hand shippers of done/manufactured goods also take benefit of the comparatively inexpensive rates costed for ocean move. Ships also have a lot of cargo space and are therefore realistically free from capacity constraints. In addition ships have acceptable transit times. Because of all of this 90% of all trade is performed by sea, the procedure of cargo boats brings an annual income of about USD 380 billion in freight. This amount is about 5% of the total world economy. The leads for the industry's continuing growth looks to be strong on account of globalization and due to the actual fact that seaborne travel is becoming better. Moreover marine casualties have progressively decreased during the last many years and compared to land transportation additionally it is more environmentally friendly and less polluting. "In his book The Economic History of World Society, Carlo Cippola suggests that the transportation industry has been one of the leading forces accountable for shifting the world from an essentially national system to the global current economic climate that prevails today" (Stopford, 2003). Transport has made the globe a smaller place and it includes succeeded in joining even isolated economies. Due to many of these above reasons, demand for sea transport is increasing continuously at an exponential rate. Since 1950 the economic development of the delivery industry has been immense. Maritime vehicles since 1990 has been experiencing new levels which lasted in the first many years of the new millennium. However the economic problems in 2008 helped bring a downturn in shipping and delivery sector resulting in a reduction in freight rates and a show up in demand for transport services. With this paper Group 5C would like to indicate and analyze the theory of the determinants on which the demand for delivery depends upon.

C:\Users\ka\Desktop\World_trade_map[1]. jpgThe increase in shipping trade (Source: The Circumstance Thinking Website)


Set your course by the stars, not by the equipment and lighting of every moving dispatch - Omar N. Bradley

2. 0 The type of transfer demand

Customers of Sea Move have special requirements and these are met by transport companies who provide a range of tailor made services and alternatives. The following are a few of the standards which play an important role in the customer making a decision when it comes to choosing a method of carry.

2. 1 Price

Shippers of cargo pay increased attention to the freight cost with regards to the percentage that it creates up of the CIF cost. For instance the price tag on transporting a barrel of engine oil from the Persian Gulf to Europe cost about 49% of the CIF cost in the 1950s. As a result of this the essential oil majors experienced their own tanker fleet so as to have higher control over the expense of ocean transfer. But today the price tag on seaborne transport is only about 2. 5% of the CIF cost and then the oil majors opt to charter in vessels. Also in the 1950s the cost of transporting a ton of coal from the Atlantic to the Pacific was about USD 10-15 per lot on a 20000 dwat vessels. Today the same coal is carried at similar rates on 150000 dwat vessel. It has been attained by economies of range.

2. 2 Speed

Transit times are fundamental for shippers of high value goods. Average speeds of profound sea going box vessels have increased from 17 knots in 1985 to 22 knots in 2007. In comparison to the expense of having inventories in warehouses, it is cheaper to ship smaller quantities as and when required. Although the freight rates will be higher it continues to be smaller in comparison to the entire costs of stocking. In 2009 2009 average transit rates of speed when down due to many carriers slow steaming to conquer the global downturn in order to reduce their costs. At this same period bunker prices also escalated so companies further slowed down.

2. 3 Transportation reliability

Shippers are ready to pay superior freight for shipping and delivery services which provide just with time (JIT)/Kanban deliveries. Container ships are actually days getting used as floating warehouses. Rates of speed can be increased or decreased in order to provide products exactly when needed.

2. 4 Security

Shippers are usually also ready to pay higher freight for vehicles which can promise minimal harm to his cargoes. Safety is especially of prime concern in container shipment where the value of goods being transferred can get into huge amount of money. After the situations of 11 Sept, the ISPS Code had become. Although this code increased costs and time put in for both ship owners and dock facilities, shipping has turned into a lot safer than before. Currently piracy is a big concern and is also adversely affecting international trade as costs 're going up and there's also delays in the delivery of goods. 2010 has viewed as escalation in Somalian piracy and initiatives are underway to suppress this menace.

2. 5 Substitutes to shipping

There are no real substitutes to delivery as a result of following reasons.

2. 5. 1 Cost effectiveness

Shipping is the most affordable mode of travel per TEU or per ton or per cubic meter of cargo transported. For example seaborne transport is just about 10-15% of the costs for road transport

2. 5. 2 Space

Ships come in various sizes so there are no space constraints. The larger the ship lower is the freight cost and vice versa. This is an essential criteria when it comes to shipping of raw materials that are usually delivered in large amounts

2. 5. 3 Carbon footprints

Shipping is one of the least polluting kinds of transportation. That is especially of importance in the box shipping where renewable shippers like IKEA, Starbucks and Wal-Mart pay very close focus on the emissions with their preferred carrier. Legislation and advanced technology will further bring down emissions in seaborne transportation which will increase the demand for shipping

2. 5. 4 Safety

Shipping also has a reasonable protection record in conditions of mishaps, spills and collisions. Polices, fines and open public opinion has resulted in shipping learning to be a safer means of transport

2. 5. 5 Accessibility

3/4ths of the world is protected with water, shipping also permits access even to remotely located countries unless they are landlocked

the low priced of maritime transport

Typical Ocean Freight Costs (Source: www. marisec. org)


My old expressing: No damage should strike us, which may be avoided with frequent health care; this must be a watch word throughout the whole company - A. P. Moller

3. 0 The variables of the demand for sea transport

"Ship demand, assessed in ton a long way of cargo, is mercurial and quick to improve, sometimes by as much as 10 - 20 per cent in a time" (Stopford, 2003).

The following are the variables which the demand for shipping and delivery is dependent upon

3. 1 The entire world economy

The account of world trade has improved a lot within the last 20 years roughly. It has become more complex and it is dependent upon many elements such as technology, logistics, politics, finance and marketing. World trade in addition has become very highly competitive. "It is against this track record that the role of shipping and delivery must be concentrated as the international trade cannot be effectively undertaken with no provision of the complex global network of maritime services which can be found today" (Branch, 1998). The demand for transport is a derived demand and the earth economy is the foremost influencer of the demand for shipping and delivery services. This happens through the import of recycleables and the export of finished commodities. Because of this there's a strong relationship between industrial production and progress in the maritime fleet. Therefore the shipping and delivery business is also highly cyclical as additionally it is damaged by the fluctuations in the world market. We will now quickly discuss the sources of business cycles.

3. 1. 1 The multiplier and accelerator effect

The most important cause of business cycles is the conversation between consumer demand and investment. As local investment in a country goes up it gives surge to consumerism. People employed in growing business have surplus cash which they spend. That is quite simply known as the investment multiplier. This extra circulation of cash in the economy causes growth and this is known as the income accelerator. This in turn causes even more demand for consumer goods. Finally when the economy heats up the opposite happens and the market switches into a slump. This causes instability.

3. 1. 2 Time-Lags

Usually when ship-owners make big money in a buoyant market they start positioning orders for new buildings. These new buildings are usually sent when the marketplace is within a slump which further depresses the marketplace. At this stage the owners don't place any more requests with the back yards and they too run out of business. So the delays in enough time taken between placing new building purchases and the arrival of new vessels also cause fluctuations in the pattern.

3. 1. 3 Stockbuilding

During an economic downturn manufacturers reduce their inventories which further depresses the demand for shipping. But when the economy shows symptoms of recovery, there is a rapid increase in the demand for sea transport as manufactures increase stocks and options. This brings about a sudden and explosive increase period for the transport industry. An example would be the crude olive oil tanker boom in 1979 caused by a rise in stocking of essential oil.

3. 1. 4 Mass Psychology

Following the herd frame of mind can also give rise to sharp fluctuations in the economy. This is clearly noteworthy in the stock market segments and financial markets where buyers can sell and purchase stocks or get into and exit financial markets solely on account of pessimism and optimism. When this step happens in short periods and in large volumes it can give climb to large economic fluctuations.

3. 1. 5 Random shocks

These events stand alone and aren't like cycles. They can be for example changes in weather and wars which can have a serious effect on the demand for shipping and delivery. The recent sub leading mortgage crisis in the USA which induced one of the worse recessions in box transport in 2008-2009 is such an example.

3. 2 The trade elasticity of the world economy

Trade elasticity = % development of sea trade / % progress in commercial production

"For the majority of the last 30 years the trade elasticity has been positive, averaging 1. 4. Sea trade grew 40% faster than world industry" (Stopford, 2003). Trade elasticity of different locations will change due to following reasons. Firstly over a time frame the source of domestic recycleables commence to get fatigued and then countries have to get started on importing from other countries. Sometimes this happens also because domestically produced goods are inferior to those brought in and moreover the price of sea carry is also cheaper. Secondly as economies become very developed they commence to transfer less of recycleables as their activity tends to become less source of information intensive and much more service oriented. Last but not the lowest amount of as time passes some countries loose their financial importance whereas others gain in economical importance. For instance in the 1960s material mills in European countries started importing iron ore from overseas.

3. 3 The type of seaborne product trades

Firstly seasonality of trades causes short term volatility. Due to the seasonal mother nature of a few of the agricultural goods it is difficult for shippers to plan forward their transfer requirements and hence they would rather work more the location markets which tend to be volatile and instable. Example is the grain trade (exports) from the united states Gulf. Another example is the upsurge in demand for oil in European countries in winter time. Secondly trade habits change with changes in the foundation of resource. When local sources are depleted then countries have to rely on imports which influences the demand for sea transport. An example here is the import of flat iron ore by Western material mills from Australia and Brazil. Finally relocation of the processing of recycleables can likewise have a direct effect on vessel type/size and the volumes transported. As recycleables like Bauxite are refined, it produces Alumina which is leaner in volume and therefore takes a smaller vessel. As Alumina is further prepared it produces Aluminium which has a straight less volume and for that reason needs a smaller tonnage than Bauxite. Fourthly the demand for sea transfer also relies intensely on the shipper's transfer coverage. In the 1970s petrol majors in america chartered in tonnage on permanent basis or built boats in conjunction with ship owners against permanent contracts. However following the 1973 essential oil crisis their policy changed and they distanced themselves from long term charters and used the spot market. Fifthly on account of bad harvest or drought or due to adverse local climate a country may be required to import which escalates the demand for transport services.

3. 4 Average haul and lot miles

As ranges over which cargoes are transferred increases so does indeed the demand for delivery. If export cargoes of crude essential oil from the Persian Gulf are transferred to European countries via the Cape of Good Wish then the demand for transport will be more than if the cargoes would be transported via the Suez Canal. This distance effect is thought as average haul and it is measured by lot miles which fundamentally are the product of a great deal of cargo delivered and the common distance. During the Arab-Israeli conflict, Egypt closed the Suez Canal which resulted in boats being diverted via the Cape of Good Hope. The ton mls thus proceeded to go up which increased the demand for shipping overnight. At the same time orders were positioned at yards for supertankers. The Panama Canal is currently being widened to a width of 49 meters which means that it'll be able to accommodate many vessels which previously cannot transit the Panama Canal due to a beam greater than 32. 9 meters is now able to transit via the Panama Canal. This is going to lessen the ton mls for these vessels and may bring about an over way to obtain these vessels and a producing fall popular.

3. 5 Politics disturbances and the Geopolitical scene

Political occurrences such as wars, revolutions, coups, hostilities, politics nationalization of international assets and attacks can all come with an indirect effect on the demand for shipment. Their effect on shipping is abrupt and surprising and furthermore is not often directly felt but comes with an indirect effect. Including the closure of the Suez Canal in July 1956 caused crude petrol tankers to sail to European countries via the Cape of Good Anticipation. Therefore increased the lot kilometers which again increased the demand for shipping and delivery. "Generally, political stability is an ailment for economic stability and wealth, as well as for investment attractiveness and meaningful financial value creation" (Lorange, 2010). Although historically it could be seen that very often freight rates increase when you can find political instability, in the long-term growth of delivery is a function of political stability. A change in government could cause a change in foreign policies which may adjust her foreign trade. After 11 Sept, 2001 terrorism and piracy have also negatively affected shipping and delivery on account of the growing concern for the price tag on security.

3. 6 Carry costs

Seaborne travel costs have progressively decreased in the last 50 years. Ships having become bigger in size; greater efficiency at ports and better organization of shipping operations have all contributed to decreasing of move costs due to the economies of level and better and higher quality of service. This has led to an increase in the demand for sea transfer.

3. 7 Globalization:

On account of globalization marketplaces around the world have increased in size and have steadily become bigger. Many homogenous trading blocs like europe (EU), UNITED STATES Free Trade Arrangement (NAFTA) and the Connection of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN) have been founded. These have facilitated increased mix boundary trade and barriers to the free motion of goods have been systematically reduced. This has also advertised the demand for shipping.

3. 8 Dispersed production:

In the past Japan was the largest production of durable consumer goods. Down the road with economic wealth the expenses of manufacturing travelled up so other centers like Taiwan and South Korea were founded. Today China is the largest production of consumer goods and one third of the world's box traffic would go to and from China. Another making hub is Vietnam. Since these low cost making centers are expanding further and further away from the major consuming areas the demand for shipment is going up as the ton miles rise.

3. 9 Increased global demand for goods and consumer goods:

With increased monetary prosperity, the low cost making centers of the world are spending closely in their own home infrastructure. This causes a rise in global demand of recycleables such as iron ore and coal. This newfound riches of developing countries is also playing an important role in increasing the demand for shipping and delivery. It is expected that the purchasing vitality of certain Asian countries will soon surpass that of the united states and Western Europe.

3. 10 Demographic shifts:

Today the world's society is targeted in Asian countries. India and China are the two most populous countries on the planet. Other South Parts of asia are also finding and catching up. On the other hand the industrialized countries of Europe and THE UNITED STATES are having increasing age populations. Although Parts of asia are still providers of goods in the not too distant future these areas may become more consumers based mostly. Therefore the demand for transport in the future will definitely be centered on Asia.

3. 11 Technology:

Technological improvements in navigational equipment, less friction hulls, less polluting and better motors and better propulsion systems have all added to making shipping safe plus more environmentally friendly. This has in turn increased the demand for shipping services.

3. 12 New legislations to increase safe practices also to reduce environmental pollution:

With high profile maritime mishaps like the Exxon Valdez, Prestige and Erica happenings the governments of the USA and Europe have passed mandatory legislations to level out solitary hull tankers for double hulls. It has increased security but on the other hands has resulted in the scrapping of one hull tankers which reduces supply and therefore heightens demand for delivery.

3. 13 Congestions and delays:

Port congestions in bulk cargo launching ports like that of Australia and Brazil and discharging jacks like that in China also help in increasing the demand for transport in the brief run. It is because on account of severe congestions vessels have to wait on highways for 2-3 3 weeks before they can berth. This decreases the supply in the market of free tonnage and for that reason increases demand of boats in the brief run.

3. 14 Predictions, projections, forecasts and targets of shipping experts and pundits and the effect of speculation

Future predictions in the transport industry can sometimes increase and lower demand of seaborne transport (the truth of irrational exuberance). As an example in 1970 there was a prediction that Japanese metallic production would twin in 5 years. This encouraged Japanese steel mill charterers to charter in bulker in large quantities. This frenzy resulted in about 40% of the world's large fleet (19000 ships or 40 million dwt) being chartered in concurrently. This resulted in a sharp upsurge in the demand for bulkers and freight rates also proceeded to go up. Then in the winter of 1970-71 the same charterers withdrew from the voyage market and out of the blue there was surplus of unemployed tonnage on the market. This sent demand spiraling and with it the freight rates.

3. 15 Aftereffect of new polices and legislations

New Legislation and legislations often tend to boost the demand for shipping and delivery services. For instance following the grounding and spilling of essential oil by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska, the united states legislators integrated the Oil Pollution Action of 1990 (OPA '90). This laws did not allow single hull tankers to operate to US jacks so this resulted in scrapping of solo hull tankers and a rise popular for double hull tankers.


Without goals, and programs to attain them, you are such as a dispatch that has established sail with no vacation spot - Fitzhugh Dodson

4. 0 Marriage between demand, resource and freight rates in shipping

Supply and demand are the forces that produce market economies work. The interplay of supply and demand in shipping and delivery determines finally the freight rate. "Shipowners and shippers work out to establish a freight rate which reflects the balance of boats and cargoes available in the market" (Stopford, 2003). As supply of tonnage in the market rises demand falls therefore does indeed the freight rates. Alternatively as supply of tonnage on the market fall demand rises and so do the freight rates. This induces shipowners to provide more move. "Demand, however, seldom exceeds supply for long; rather, there have a tendency to be relatively brief peaks of wealth in the freight markets, followed by much longer slumps" (Lorange, 2010). The supply of shipping services changes very slowly but surely to a response to changes in demand. Alternatively demand for transport services changes very quickly. Ships take several years to construct and moreover have a life-span of between 15 to 30 years. So when demand falls the show up in supply will take a very long time to catch up. For example in the middle 1970s tanker demand dropped drastically by 60%. It got more than 10 years for supply to adjust to this fall in demand. Although there was no demand for tankers in this era supply continued to increase as new buildings ordered during the memories were sent. So demand dropped further and freight rates struck underneath. This required owners to start out scrapping the vessels. That is very briefly the relationship between demand, supply and freight rates.


Admire a little ship, but put your freight in a huge one; for the larger the load, the higher will be the profit upon earnings - Hesiod

5. 0 Elasticity of demand

Fluctuations in freight rates have an effect in worlds demand for goods, commodities and recycleables. The volume of that effect varies from one good to another and depends on the elasticity of its demand. Elasticity steps the result of gross revenue and production the effect of a swift in shipping and delivery freight rates.

As we have already mentioned, demand for shipment services is a produced demand depending on need of the transferred large cargoes or done goods. Through shipping travelling goods are shifted to the areas where they are simply needed, to be able to enter other periods of production or even to fulfill demand for done goods in the importing country.

When freight rates rise or fall season, determinants of the elasticity drive demand in a positive or negative way. You will find three main factors travelling that change

5. 1 Consumer demand for the merchandise created by using imported raw materials or imported last goods.

Through shipping travel raw materials, commodities and final goods reach the source with their demand. If we suppose that freight rates surge, that may lead to a rise in the price of the ultimate goods, the equilibrium on the market of those goods changes. Higher prices will move down the amounts demanded, that will slowly decrease the quantities produced. Reducing production, results in shrinking the imports. The quantity of that reduction will depend on the elasticity of demand of the final goods brought in or the products produced by using the imported recycleables.

More flexible demand for final goods, commodities or recycleables will lead for an elastic transport service which is afflicted from the climb in freights. On the other hand, if the elasticity of the ultimate goods is inelastic, as in the case of using recycleables for creation of commodities, the demand for sea transportation services will stay the same, not taking into account the go up of freight prices.

5. 2 The cost of sea transportation as a percentage to the market price of goods taken or produced with the transported materials.

The selling price of a product is a proportion of different costs which are added through the production procedure. The cost of sea transportation is one part of the total cost which sometimes is produced, even before the procedure of production begins. A relatively small percentage on the ultimate price, will lead with an inelastic vehicles demand. On the other hand, if the price of transportation plays a big role in the finals' product price, then the demand for travel will be relatively flexible.

An increase on freight rates will influence the final price of something more, if the price of transportation is a major percentage of its total cost. Because of this, by increasing freights, the price of the good increase, resulting in a decrease in market segments' demand. As we have mentioned previously a domino effect will need place, and creation of goods will lower driving down fresh materials' or goods' demand. On the other hand, if the transport cost is relatively low, increasing the freight rates will have no influence on the demand for travelling.

Although the majority of the times the ocean transportation cost and associated expenditures are a negligible percentage on the final cost of a product, there are occasions where these costs may reach 8 and even 15%. Because of this its demand is greatly affecting transport demand.

5. 3 Substitution in transportation.

Transportation of goods may be performed by using different method of transport. However, transport travel provides services with rules cost and in high quantity. Nevertheless, when freight rates become more expensive, the convenience in which sea transport services can be substituted by other means of carry, makes the demand pretty much elastic.

Higher freight rates, will lead importers in a seek out substitution. Within the short run, once we can easily see in Shape 1, the go up of freight rates won't have a large influence on the demand on shipping and delivery services. As a result, gross income will be increased for travelling companies, as the carried amount remains the same but the freights have increased. However, that situation will not carry on for long.

On the long run, the importers can respond in a raise on freight prices by substituting sea vehicles by other method of transport. As a result elasticity of demand for the ultimate goods, becomes more flexible (Body 2) and so does indeed the demand for sea transport services.

Graph demonstrating the elasticities of the demand for shipment (Source: Metaxas, 1981)


He who is in love with practice without theory is like the sailor who planks ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he may cast - Leonardo da Vinci

6. 0 Introduction

In this chapter we will discuss about the determinants of the demand for shipping and delivery in the three basic shipping categories that are container shipping, dried up cargo markets and the moist trade. In every these three areas the role of China as a pressure driving a car the demand for these goods cannot be replaced.

6. 1 Determinants of the demand for liner shipping

"Liner services operate between set ports over a tight timetable. Liner services can be handled by one company, or by a group of companies in what is called an alliance or consortium. Costs and income are shared relative to each company's contribution. Liner transport companies mainly operate container ships, which take containerized cargo" (UNCTAD, 2010). From an financial perspective, international department of labor and decentralization of creation operations have provided an important impetus for the demand of liner shipment. The USA and some traditional industrial countries of Europe have increasingly considered low-wage countries of Asia instead of some nearby parts with cheap labour pressure, such as Eastern European countries and Mexico. More and more products suitable for container transfer are being produced, like refrigerators, air-conditioners and other consumer electric products with relative high value, which must be transportation over longer distances. Outsourcing and global maritime carry has to some extent stemmed from the liberalization of global trade during recent years. Lower custom's tasks and the abolition of non-tariff trade obstacles have also acted as a catalyst for international trade, which includes further damaged the demand of transport. Containerization has definitely experienced a big effect on the business of shipping. Without containerization China wouldn't normally have surfaced as a huge scale shipper of consumer goods. China has performed an irreplaceable part in this admiration. China has seduced increasingly more foreign purchases in its industry sector, which has founded it as a manufacturing plant for the globe creation activities. Furthermore, the growing percentage of freights shipped that are highly suitable for container transport like final goods and intermediate goods, as well as some traditional general cargoes, is another positive factor for increasing the demand of liner shipping and delivery. Increasing exports and technical developments have resulted in an increase in the expansion of this sector. Size of the container ships and average acceleration has also steadily increased. Maersk Series has recently purchased a series of 18000 TEU vessels (Malacca Max) to achieve more economies of level. A significant slowdown in the world's leading economies would have a negative influence on international trade and therefore on container shipment. Terrorism risk may also lead to a slowdown of international trade and this is very much relevant for transfer containers to the USA where there is a serious concern a "dirty" bomb might be put in another of the containers. It has led to the united states applying the 100% check out for all transfer containers to the USA. The cost and time lost on account of these extra security techniques is charging the industry a lot of money and has increased the price tag on shipping storage containers to the USA. These increased costs might cause a downward adjustment of consumer's purchasing fads and might cause a slowdown of imports in to the USA. The growth in the demand because of this sector has been about 10% per annum during the last couple of years but recently they have fallen down to around 5%. In 2007 china and taiwan - Europe trade grew by 20% however in 2008 - 2009 these quantities have dropped. "Gerry Wang, CEO of Seaspan has referred to container dispatch system as "ocean highways" greatly important for the arousal of world trade, connecting producers and consumers" (Lorange, 2010). In comparison with traditional standard cargo vessels, shorter handling time at terminals and safer, higher quality carry are main decisive influences of container shipping and delivery success. More cargo owners with goods of high value tend to choose this form of move. Not merely do these factors lower costs, but also reduces containers' turnaround times at terminals, which reduce capacity bottlenecks in the ports. As a result of this, increasingly more major ports on the globe increase their degree of containerization. However, with the increasing domination of faster and much larger vessels in the global transport, the growth of slot and improvement of its facilities cannot catch up with such rapid expansion of ships that capacity bottlenecks in the plug-ins will impose negative impact on liner shipping and delivery demand. For example congestion in and beyond your ports brings about longer turnaround times further affecting transport demand. Thus reliable harbor facilities for high cargo controlling efficiency, favorable collection and distribution system in interface and better contacts to the hinterland are important driving forces for much more demand of efficient liner shipping. So the future financial development of China will be of excellent importance for box shipping and delivery. Also the financial development of Japan, USA and the countries of the European union will also play an important role in increasing the demand in this sector.

6. 2 Determinants of the demand in dry out cargo markets

"The major dried up bulk shipping and delivery market is composed principally of the five cargo types: flat iron ore, grain, coal, bauxite/alumina and phosphate. These commodities are primary fresh ingredients that form made goods. The dry bulk sector accounts for just over one quarter of the full total volume of cargo carried by sea" (UNCTAD, 2010). In this particular sector the carriage of iron ore and coal is very important and the demand is maximum for the carry of flat iron ore. The biggest supplier of the product is Australia and Brazil. China due to its insatiable urge for food for metal is the major importer or market because of this cargo. The three major providers are Vale (Brazil), BHP Billiton (Australia) and Rio Tinto (UK) and they're currently increasing their production which is even more than the OPEC (Business of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) countries have ever endured in the oil trade. The merged market share of these three along is so large that there surely is a fear that they could force prices up which could negatively have an impact on the demand in the dry bulk market. So a key point in predicting the demand in this sector is to strongly follow China's imports of flat iron ore to supply the local material mills. Even though the wet and dried markets are typically unbiased, there are ofcourse also interdependencies because of the lifestyle of OBO (Ore Large Oil) ships which can move from the moist to the dry out sectors depending on freight rates. Furthermore, efficiency of slots is another factor that influences shipping demand. Because of congestions at plug-ins (like for example that in Australian plug-ins currently due to the cyclone), cargoes are sourced from other roots which can raise the ton mile which causes an increase in the demand for dry cargo ships. Currently Chinese importers are importing more from Brazil than Australia. Another trend that will have an effect on the demand for dried out bulk delivery is the increasing demand from China's seaside trade. The recent ban on Russian grain exports will probably improve the demand coming from the Midsection East and North Africa, who normally import from Russia. Similar export ban on Chinese raw materials have induced many bulkers to ballast to non Chinese language ports to find their next cargoes after discharging their last cargo in China.

6. 3 Determinants of the demand in the wet trade

"The tanker market is mainly concerned with the transport of crude petrol and petroleum products, which, used together, represent around 1 / 3 of world seaborne trade by volume" (UNCTAD, 2010). The demand in the tanker market is basically reliant on the demand for essential oil, which is again dependent on the current essential oil prices. There's a whole lot of volatility seen in this sector. In 2008, the price tag on oil was quite high. Due to this year's 2009 crisis globally consumption has truly gone down. So in this sector high prices of olive oil have a negative influence on the tanker freight rates and then for the demand for tankers. But but the rates are low, they are still much better than the dried up cargo sector as there's a lot if demand for engine oil for use as airplane fuel, in cars, heat (especially in winter in THE UNITED STATES and Europe) and petrochemical applications. When price of essential oil is high then countries change to coal for his or her energy requirements. As a result of IMO's (International Maritime Organisation) regulations there's been a whole lot of scrapping of sole hull tankers just lately on account of the requirements for two times hull tankers. Twin hull tankers are essential more for imports into Europe and THE UNITED STATES. But there are also nations that ignore the IMO and still use solitary hull tankers. Although there's been a great deal scrapping of old one hull tankers, there is still a very high number of new buildings holding out to be provided. Olive oil and politics are connected in an inextricable way. Changes of government authorities' insurance policy in olive oil imports or exports can influence the international tanker market significantly. Within this sector also the role of China as a complete net importer is very important. Taking China for example, in the past 10 years, they have gradually become the second most oil consuming nation on earth. To be able to gratify this huge demand for olive oil, the Chinese authorities has made a decision to develop a home tanker fleet. As a result between 2000 and 2009, the amount of VLCCs (LARGE Crude Carrier) in the Chinese merchant fleet rose from 11 to 55 vessels. This increase has already established a great impact on the demand of tankers. Substitution is another important factor influencing international seaborne petrol transport. Pipeline has turned into a reliable way of essential oil transportation, lessening the demand for essential oil transferred by the ocean. Pipeline travel has its advantages such as large quantity of transport, lower investment and strong sustainability.

6. 4 Conclusion

In conclusion group 5C would say that for a healthy demand in current shipment services there needs to be a revival in consumer demand and especially in the developed world. It is because demand for shipping and delivery is a derived demand and for that reason it struggles to fuel demand because of its prices by rates mechanisms. Demand for transport also changes very fast and a close monitoring of changing tendencies in international trade is a good sign for predicting the demand for shipping. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) have the largest potential to induce the global demand for essential oil, dry bulk and container transport. China is said to be building "10 Manhattans" domestically which might demonstrate as a future signal for the demand for shipping and delivery. Economists are inspecting what would happen if Asia would loose its business lead as a manufacturing and production middle if transport costs keep on increasing (on account of environmental laws and escalating fuel prices). This might reduce the ability of the countries to compete in the creation of created goods although they have an advantage in low labour costs. Would production move back to the consumption regions of Europe and THE UNITED STATES? So to get rid of we can stress that to anticipate demand for shipment is simpler said than done and there is no guideline.

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