The History Of Globalization

This newspaper discuss about the impact of globalization toward country, some attention are being make clear regarding the causes associated with globalization and the impact of the pushes on different stakeholders. There are many forces and impact that can affect the international management in term of process and decision. The forces and impact have been revealed, the international management can use this information to boost their management process and also to examine their decision.

Globalization is the connection between different parts of location and make them interdependence and integration in term of economies, societies and cultures. Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute defines globalization as "the diminution or reduction of state-enforced limitations on exchanges across edges and the progressively more integrated and intricate global system of production and exchange that has surfaced as a result". The consequence of globalization will certainly reduce the trade barrier for business to go into the new market which will improve the economic transaction and business. the prevailing international body establishment such as World Trade Organization (WTO), European Union, Asian Free Trade Area plays the top role in encourage the global activity.

3. 0 Record of Globalization.

The record of globalization is still in subject or issue on going question, there no accurate in utter in storyline of when the to begin process of globalization. But civilization are being record, we can know the procedure of the starting place on globalization by referring and examining the history of civilization. The example of early civilization that produce initial level of globalization is Roman empire, the Parthian empire, and Han Dynasty.

3. 1 Original Level of Globalization

The development of Silk Highway bring is a important background that induce the globalization process at that time. The trading between Roman Empire, the Parthian empire, and Han Dynasty have made the creation of Silk Street.

Another thing that provide a important in original level of globalization in through the Islamic Golden Age. The Muslim investors and explorers bring an understanding and technology, plants, and trade to the old world. Moreover, the expansions of Islam make Arab vocabulary being learn by other culture and to match the hajj in created the cosmopolitan of culture.

3. 2 Modern Globalization

The major starting for globalization in this new age is after World War 2 when the country leader begin to interdependent with another and they want to steer clear of the probability of future warfare. The creation of Bretton Woods Agrement has provide a significant effect toward globalization. This contract has final result the creation of the International Monetary Account which now becomes the globe Bank, International Loan provider for Reconstruction and development, and International Trade Organization (ITO) that induce the General Arrangement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) then becoming World Trade Group (WTO). This factor is the reason for current globalization, low tariff and obstacles provide by WTO and other trade business, the economic flexibility following the dissolve of Soviet Union and faster transportation and easy to converse developed more globalization process.

4. 0 International Management Practice Toward Pushes of Globalization.

The international management is procedure for applying management concepts and techniques in multinational environment and the pushes of globalization may effect the process of international management.

4. 1 Main Makes Of Globalization

There are the main forced the associated with globalization such as technology, trade and integration, offshoring and outsourcing, migration, transportation, and environmental pollution.

4. 11 Technology

The major forces that enhance globalization is the progress technology, the creation of computer, internet revolution make just how be more faster, linked, and information. The web internet sites such as twitter, facebook, and web 2 2. 0 give people easyly change information around the world. China examples have a significant impact of technology in term of technology, research and development. The progress technology of China made that country on the list of competitive country in the world.

4. 12 Trade and Integration

The conflict between the incline regionalization of world trade, and financial integration has sparked a worldwide pattern may lead to a relationship between regionalism trade and financial globalization. High market integration not only will encourage the flow of business but it will also increase the integration of financial marketplaces. This can described by the economical dependence between the members of the block able to replace the immediate capital moves to consolidation estimates assets between members involved. Factors including a rise in the legal correspondent capital marketplaces, monetary policy compatibility, and coordination administration of forex rate to stabilize the advantage competitive between members. European Union Example of high monetary integration which already achieve the amount of economic union.

4. 13 Offshoring and Outsourcing

Offshoring is a one of kind of outsourcing that provide a so this means which is relocation the business enterprise procedure for company in another country. Business will subcontracting or getting in touch with the part of their process to some other parties, the relation of both functions increase the transfer of knowledge, information, and skills that business lead to global relation between country. Such as Apple that not have any creation, thus they us a semiconductor from Samsung to manufacture their product.

4. 14 Migration

The poor monetary condition, work opportunities in overseas country make the citizen migrate to another country to truly have a job. The growing countries have to migrate their personnel to develop country where they can have the international expertise and better countrywide income. Another factor the encourage the migration in the multinational company the possess the branches in around the world need to transfer their worker overseas, this is call expatriates or impetrates. The reduced barrier of labor freedom such as Europe also encourages people to migrate.

4. 15 Transportation

The travel make globalization better with the motion of trade, resources, and supporting the activity of passenger and freight between region. The infrastructures such as road, air street, sea road, give an important to offering an efficient transportation. In Singapore, they have a big interface of loading terminal for shipment. This can help the Singapore market to improve and become competitive to another country such as Malaysia or Indonesia.

4. 16 Environmental Pollution

Globalization add a great deal of environment pollution, this will impact a negative impact of ecosystems. You will discover direct and indirect effect on environment, the direct influence on environmental is happen through the trading between business deals such as oil spills, and intro of exotic kinds. The indirect result is such as politic, income per-capita, and change oh insurance policy. The heavy industry in Ukraine have made that country one of most polluted devote the world. Through the industrial revolution, Europe faces a issue of polluting of the environment, However, European countries country now days are definitely more concern for environmentally friendly.

4. 2 Impact of International Management Practice Toward the Globalization Forces

The international management need to change all forces on global forces, the advance technology nedd to gein by management to become more competitive, there a far more opportunities to create trade and integration with other global company and they have to take that opportunities, offshoring and outsourcing of subproject or process to other celebrations in other country to make business gain the advantages such as lower resources, lower materials and gain low development cost and increase profit percentage. Business can have the verity of human resources form different civilizations as result from migration. The high quality of travelling and infrastructure can help management to help make the process more efficient and effective, and last but not least International management have to control environmentally friendly pollution that may be the result of any business activity by the management.

5. 0 International Management Practice Toward impact of Causes On Different Stakeholders.

International Management is vulnerable to the impact of globalization, globalization creates much impact to the planet and either it positive or negative can impact the international management.

5. 1 Impact On Different Stakeholders

The impact include of the on different stakeholders Like the domestic companies, Employment, farmer, indigenous civilizations, and various demographic group within that country.

5. 11 Local Company

The lower trade barrier, easy acces of international market bring a poor impact for domestic company. The local company which may have a restriction in term of expertise, financial or any weakness will not survive in the competition with strong overseas company. In Singapore, they don't have any responsibility to any foreign immediate investment from international company. Thus, the neighborhood companies suffer the most and also have to struggles to compete. Inside a positive aspect, this brings advantages to customers that receive a high quality product or services from the advertising.

5. 12 Employment

The high globalization provide a positive impact to occupation, the physical investment in local market create job opportunities for local people. This changes the standard of departing for local people by the increasing of income per-capita. However, the higher level of migration that people discus before provide a negative impact to residents, the migration they have got a higher skill and even more experience will have significantly more opportunities compare to local employee this raise the degree of competitiveness in term of occupation. . In USA, the level of worker turnover is high, the employee being analyze predicated on the performance.

5. 13 Farmer

The globalization is presumed lead to boost the availability of food grains, the reduced trade barrier provides flexibility in term of food security, the poor country or poor rural area can benefit from the gain access to of food, and the earnings from crop will earn the forex. However, the assumption is normally. The study by Dr. Deva in India show that, Globalization has increased the migration, the farmers has evolved their occupation by employed in other country. This result the reduce the development of crop, the men as leave in support of women are pressured to farming. In 2003, it was reported in NY times on Sept 2006, the result of the phenomena lead more than 17, 000 Indian farmers invest in suicide.

5. 14 Indigenous Cultures

Globalization can lean both negative and positive impact, if we check out positive impact, we can easily see the globalization create the task opportunities to indigenous cultures by transferring the local worker, and migration. This can make the societies conform or acknowledged another ethnicities and globalization guarantee the economy growth to a country. Inside the negative side, globalization made the culture loss their own identity. The social, political and overall economy have been control and being dispute, the business negotiation, multilateral trade, and trade off designed to bring benefit to country. However, the indigenous culture is in a position where much broken have being made such as their land have been open to privatization, the Farmer who loss their land have to discover a work and life in United State (Blaser, 2004, p245).

5. 15 Different Demographic Group

Demographic group is a attribute of the societies or human population, it are made by gender, age, race, income, achievements and politics. The globalization made the changes in demographic group might be lead from migration or offshoring and outsourcing. The major changes is elevating real income, the free trade and low trade hurdle provide a cost advantages in any business. China is one of country that gain much benefit after getting started with World Trade Organization(WTO). Currently, China have a larger fascination in investment and any trade businesses. The globalization makes government to changes their insurance policies, again the globe Trade Corporation (WTO) encourage to lower trade hurdle and lower tariff on the list of users. Asian Free Trade Contract (AFTA) associates has decided to reduce the tariff to 5% amongst their country people.

5. 2 Impact of International Management Practice Toward Impact Of the Globalization Forces

International management have to make decision to avoid any negative impact and gain a positive impact. The home companied might be the primary competitor available or the management can pick to truly have a jv or the licensing with the home company in particular country. It really is highly recommended to international choose use polycentric strategy to get a understanding and employ the local manager to give more understanding of their culture. The Overseas direct investment can lead to increase the web host country income and may disturb their socioeconomic or ecosystem, International management have to make decision sensibly before enter the country.

6. 0 Recommendation

The Globalization can provide a positive and negative impact to overall economy and various stake holder to regulate the impact of globalization, some action must be done such as, the united states have to safeguard the local company by impose the trade hurdle in the federal government industry. Government also offers to bring in a regulation to control foreign company. The neighborhood companies need to be competitive to contend with overseas company. Thus negative impact can be control by the federal government and local company.

To decrease the environmental pollution, it is a good idea to management to give more matter and produce the renewable product. A federal government also can generate a regulation to regulate the pollution that induce by globalization.

A migration can lead to low production in rural area, a farmer may loss employee and less people want to produce the crop. The high technology achieve from globalization may help the neighborhood farmer and raise the creation of crop. Thus, the continues research and development need to be manufactured in order to create more income to the crop industry.

7. 0 Conclusion

Globalization cannot be stop, the country and employee have to be competitive in order to remain competitive in global. The interdependency among country will lead to higher impact in term of earnings, trading and relationship. With this modern era we must be global and go global, and there is high competitiveness in global level. The thing that international must have is competitive benefits to being differ to some other rival. International Management have to prepared by adapt the forces and impact of globalization. The negative and positive effect of globalization can be control by the wise decision making by international management.

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