The Role Of Women In Economic Development

India, since self-reliance in 1947 has adopted a mixed overall economy where the general public sector and the private sector co-existed. The public sector, till lately, dominated the primary industries of the current economic climate viz. the heavy business, power and infrastructure, bank and insurance, mining of major nutrients etc. The market however also always played an important part at the mercy of overall State legislation. Further, the overall economy, till recently, possessed an inward orientation as India pursued the purpose of self-reliance and import substitution. The goal of establishing a socialistic style of society led to a system of bureaucratic handles over industry with complex licensing requirements and steps, tariffs, forex regulations, import restriction, wide scale deficit financing etc.

Since 1991, India has embarked after a span of restructuring its macro-economic insurance plan framework. India is emerging as a major market, international investment is growing, the overseas to the eighties but it was the total amount of payments crisis of 1991 that marked the decisive-turning. The brand new economic policies consist of macro-economic stabilization operations aimed at repairing greater fiscal willpower and efficiency, deregulation and de-licensing guidelines aimed at propelling industrial growth, and structural modification processes aimed at beginning of the market leading to higher competitiveness of Indian industry and higher infusion of overseas capital both in industry as well as in the administrative centre markets. The total of these procedures is to place better reliance on the marketplace with least adjustments, liberalise investment strategies and make the overall economy globally integrated. The process of liberalisation and de-regulation is currently well under way and they have given significant fillip to the pace of economic expansion. exchange reserves are high and the speed of inflation under control. Foodgrains development has achieved an all time high and the Indian middle class is growing in proportions. At the same time, these adjustment processes also hold on considerable challenges for the united states, particularly for susceptible organizations, such as poor women, whose hobbies the market hardly ever shows, whose contribution to the overall economy is generally invisible and frequently in then domestic sphere. The Government of India has, therefore, made special efforts to increase its support for public sectors and started lots of schemes aimed at the poor, specifically poor women and ladies in the casual sector.

In days gone by, data collection through the National Census has taken to light the under reporting of feminine population in certain places. However, it is also true that feminine work participation is not effectively recorded and consequently reflected in the Census Data. Declining love-making proportion and low girl work participation rates in many parts of the country are immediate results of having less social and ethnic level of sensitivity on gender issues, which frequently is reflected in the bias up against the importance, role and the status of women in the contemporary society.

UNIFEM the business lead company in mobilising the gender sensitising process for the National Census 2001 is working tightly with the Registrar Standard of India. The focus is principally in the area of training of the census enumerators with a view to improve the enumeration of women and lady children and creating public awareness through press mobilisation.


The approach to women's development in the First Five 12 months Plan (1951-56) had not been clear. The women's question was regarded as primarily a sociable one by the major section of the political command and the bureaucracy and the role of the State in 'communal issues was seen with great hesitation and caution. Significantly, issues recognized by the National Planning Committee's Sub-Committee on Women ("Ladies in a planned Overall economy" 1941) were not considered by the state planners till a decade later. Instead women were projected as beings looking for education, health and welfare services only. It was only between 1977 and 1980 that some serious exercises in policy review were adopted. Amongst these, the three most crucial exercises were the Statement of the Working Group on Work of Women, 1977-78; Statement of the Working Group on Development of Village Level Organizations of rural Women, 1977-78, Article of the Working Group on Adult Education Programmes for Women, 1977-78 and Article of the Country wide Committees on the Role and Contribution of Women in Agriculture and Rural Development, 1979-80. The 6th Five Calendar year Plan 91979-84) report released in Dec, 1979 Contained distinct admission of failing to eliminate disparity and injustice in both interpersonal and financial life. In addition, it stated that the objective of population control cannot be performed without causing major changes in the position of women. Including women within the chapters on occupation, manpower and rural development this file made a definite departure from early on plans where women have been brought up only in the chapters on public services. In recommending the necessity for "administrative advancement" and "collection of sex-wise distribution data on development assistance", the plan acknowledged the prior neglect, the necessity for better information flow and new mechanisms to ensure women get their "due show" of government's attention and support and "equal chance for development and distributive justice". Support for organizations of rural women was recommended on a single key points as organizations of the rural poor - to improve their "bargaining electric power and usage of development assistance".

With the twin emphasis on employment and productivity in the 7th Plan the Way paper outlined the strategy of a direct attack on the issues of poverty, unemployment and regional imbalance with "accelerated development of recruiting". There was greater emphasis on the provision of gainful work to the unemployed - especially women and children. The strategy of organizing women around socio-economic activities was reiterated, for the twin goals of making their projects financially viable and adding to their social durability for overall development of their status.

The Eighth Plan was created against the background of the brand new Economic policy which brought about an activity of macro-economic stabilization and structural adjustment processes. The brand new features of the section on Women's Development are a paragraph on assault against women and a two-page "Situational Examination" - which highlights the issues of higher mortality, lower education and increasing unemployment of women, "the conceptual methodological and conception" biases regarding value of women's work, compounded by women's attention in the casual sector, resulting in casualisation, non-protection of labour regulations and inaccessibility to credit, technology and other types of development assistance.

The Approach Paper to the Ninth Plan which was made public in January, 1997 designated other watershed in the history of Indian Planning. It declared the Empowerment of Women as one of the objectives of the program and the transfer of control of sociable infrastructure in the general public sphere to women's categories as a technique of the program. The Approach Newspaper calls for women's aspect plan as a part of the plan of each sector to recognize the movement of benefits to and impact of strategies and programmes on women. It calls for reliance on women's self applied help organizations as a technique. It declares the move of benefits to women and children as one of the fundamental standards for dedication of allocation priorities. At the time of submission of the report, focus on the preparations of the specific Plan proposals in underway. A unique feature this time is the procedure of consultations where hundreds of grass roots women's organizations are discussing the Approach Newspaper and formulating suggestions which would help realize the aim of women's empowerment laid down by the Approach Paper. These organizations are interacting directly with the Planning Fee and the Ministries at the time of writing this article in order to engender the Ninth Plan. This process of mobilization and appointment is a continuation of the process that was began prior to the Beijing Meeting.

The last one fourth of a hundred years has seen great changes in education of women, in their health and in political involvement, in laws regulating them as well as in awareness of their protection under the law. The impact of these changes are not glaringly noticeable yet in data on work participation rates or large-scale entrance of women in modern sector job or in decision making at high levels. However, speedily growing enrolment and retention of ladies in school shutting the gender gap, women having higher longevity of life than men, minimizing of fertility rates and fast extension in access of ladies in local level elected bodies show stable and sure advancement of women following together with economic development of the united states. With upsurge in rate of development of the current economic climate and in the above mentioned development/empowerment indicators for girls, the 21st century is poised to be women's century. Whether economic development contributes to women's development and empowerment or vice versa we have no idea. But women's development and empowerment through education, change in their monetary, social and political status will ensure sustainable development that people are sure off.

The scope of the paper is bound to the case study of Punjab. Within the land that celebrates machoism and is also notorious for the declining gender ratio, a record range of women taking part in the expansion of the overall economy. Women entrepreneurs do not operate in isolation. They work under the same macro, regulatory and institutional platform as their men counterparts. However, it's important to dig deeper to be able to comprehend the gender biases embedded in world which limit women's ability to move, interactions, active economical participation and usage of business development services. The business enterprise environment for girls also shows the intricate interplay of different facets that ultimately lead to the disadvantaged status of women in society.

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