ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL RESOURCES AND ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY...

ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL RESOURCES AND ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF MATERIAL PRODUCTION STOCK

The result of the study of the chapter should be the fluency in the skills of applying applied research using special economic terminology and vocabulary, typical methods, analytical techniques and computer technologies; obtaining the practice of systematization, detailing, modeling of various factors of production and economic activity, developing the ability to manage material and technical supply, the stock of the enterprise.

Economic characteristics of inventories and material costs

Inventories - are the production resources of an enterprise that have a material form, intended for resale (at trading enterprises) or used in the production of goods, services and management purposes. The bulk of inventories (MPZ) is used as labor items in the production process. The MPZ includes raw materials, materials, fuel, components, semi-finished products, low-value and wearing items (tools, devices, tools) that are in stock, etc., used in one production cycle. At the same time, they lose their natural form and completely transfer their value to the finished product. The valuation of inventories is reflected in the second section of the balance sheet in the line "Stocks". with decoding on the elements of material resources: raw materials, materials and other similar values, finished products and goods for resale, other stocks and costs.

Raw material stocks make up a significant part in working capital assets (in the structure of circulating assets they can exceed 60%). They are differentiated according to the following groups:

1) raw materials - agricultural products (grain, wool, cotton, fruits, vegetables) and extractive industries (oil, ore, gas, etc.)

2) basic materials - products of the manufacturing industry (flour, sugar, cloth, metal, leather, etc.)

3) semi-finished products items of labor received from outside, which are subject to further processing in shops or sales;

4) auxiliary materials facilitate the implementation of the technological process and the release of the product (grinding powder, polish, acids). In the group of auxiliary materials, in connection with the peculiarity of their use, they separately allocate fuel, containers and packing materials, spare parts:

• Fuel is divided into technological (for technological purposes), propulsion (fuel) and utility (for heating);

• energy, water;

• packaging and packaging materials - items used for packaging, transportation, storage of various materials and products (bags, boxes, boxes);

• Spare parts are used to repair and replace worn out parts of machinery and equipment;

• household tools, tools;

5) recyclable production waste - remnants of raw materials and materials formed during the processing of the original material resources and the release of finished products. Recyclable waste completely or partially lose its original consumer properties (sawdust, chips).

Production stocks - are material assets that are not entered into the production process (can be in stock, in safe storage, in transit).

The economic essence of current assets and inventories is characterized by their composition and allocation structure, economic resources,

the ability to generate income, as well as their actual expenditure as a result of previous economic activities.

At manufacturing enterprises, material costs in the cost of manufactured products occupy a significant specific weight and can range from 60 to 90%. Exceptions are the extractive industries, where the share of material costs is low.

Material costs are attributed to direct costs. Their value directly depends on the volume of production, changing in proportion to output, so they are related to variable costs. However, it is necessary to remember: the change in purchase prices as a result of the provided wholesale discounts for a large batch of raw materials and materials can lead to the fact that with an increase in the volume of production, material costs in the unit cost of production will decrease. The increase in used capacities can lead to the opposite effect - the growth of material costs in a unit of production due to the increase in marriage. The nature of the change in variable costs is illustrated by a conditional example (Table 7.1).

Table 7.1

The nature of the change in the variable costs per unit of output at wholesale discounts from the purchase price

Variants of purchases of raw materials per year, units.

The price of raw materials, rubles.

Purchase volume, pcs.

Cost of purchase, thousand rubles. (group 1 х gr.2)

Production volume, units.

Specific consumption per unit of output, pcs.

Variable costs per unit of output, rub. (group 5 х gr.1)

A

1

2

3

4

5

6

0-1000

1000

1000

1000

4000

0.25

250

1001-2000

900

1500

1350

5500

0.25

225

2001-2500

800

2500

2000

8200

0.25

200

End of the table. 7.1

Variants of purchases of raw materials per year, units.

The price of raw materials, rubles.

Purchase volume, pcs.

Cost of purchase, thousand rubles. (group 1 х gr.2)

Production volume, units.

Specific consumption per unit of output, pcs.

Variable costs per unit of output, rub. (group 5 X group 1)

A

1

2

3

4

5

6

2501-3000

700

2800

1960

9100

0.25

175

3001-3500

600

3400

2040

10 500

0.25

150

As can be seen from the calculations, with the price per unit of raw material 1000 rubles, the volume of purchase of 1000 units. and in the production of 4000 units. specific variable costs amount to 250 rubles. (1,000 thousand rubles// 4000 units). With a volume of output of 5500 units, the consumption of raw materials per unit of output remains unchanged (0.25), and the price reduction to 900 rubles. due to the provided wholesale discount will reduce the specific variable costs to 225 rubles. (0.25 x 900), etc.

The cost of raw materials consumed in the process of production is included in the cost of production without value added tax and is accounted for by such items of calculation as raw materials and basic materials, returnable production waste, purchased semi-finished products and components, fuel and energy for technological purposes and other

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