Analysis of the effectiveness of management of accounts...

Analysis of the efficiency of receivables management

In the process of analyzing accounts receivable, various objectives are pursued:

• evaluation of the payment discipline of buyers and customers;

• analysis of the risks of receivables and the probability of repayment of funds;

• identification of liabilities in the composition of receivables that are unlikely to be collected;

• Development of consumer lending policies aimed at accelerating settlements and reducing the risk of non-payments.

As the main tasks of the analysis can be identified:

• analysis of the state of accounts receivable, its composition and structure;

• the formation of analytical information that allows you to monitor receivables;

• Determining the real value of receivables in the face of the changing purchasing power of cash;

• analysis and development of payment policies, justification of the conditions for granting loans to individual customers;

• control over the compliance of the conditions for granting credit to customers and obtaining commercial credit from suppliers;

• forecasting the collection of receivables.

The amount of receivables is affected by:

• total sales of the organization;

• terms of settlements with debtors;

• a policy of collecting receivables. The more active the enterprise shows in recovering accounts receivable, the less its balances and the higher the quality of accounts receivable;

• Payment discipline of buyers;

• the state of accounting, the reasonableness of the inventory, the presence of an effective system of internal control;

• quality of accounts receivable analysis and consistency in the use of its results.

In the most general form, changes in the volume of accounts receivable for the year can be characterized by balance sheet data and its transcripts. For the purposes of internal analysis, the information of analytical accounting of settlements with buyers and customers, suppliers on advances issued, accountable persons, other debtors is used.

Example

For the analysis of the composition and structure of accounts receivable, the data of Table 1 are used. 8.7.

Table 8.7. Analysis of the structure of accounts receivable

Indebtedness

At the beginning of the period

End of period

Change

ths. RUR.

%

ths. RUR.

%

ths. RUR.

Buyers and customers

21,053

52.05

14,380

38.09

-6673

Advances issued

10 291

25.44

790

20.37

2601

Other debtors

9106

22.51

15 683

41.54

6577

Total accounts receivable

40,450

100.0

37,753

100.0

-2697

As we can see, in the structure of accounts receivable, the largest proportion is the debt of buyers, but its share decreased by the end of the analyzed period from 52.05 to 38.09%. At the same time, it attracts the growth of debts of other debtors (from 22.51 to 41.54%). The complex and heterogeneous nature of this article necessitates the clarification of its composition. According to the information disclosed by the company, the most significant items of other receivables are "Settlements with the budget and off-budget funds", "Assignment settlements", and "Calculations on interest accrued".

For the analysis of receivables the following group of indicators is used.

The share of accounts receivable in the total volume of current assets:

where DZ - accounts receivable; OA - current assets of the organization.

Period of accounts receivable turnover:

where D - duration of the analyzed period, days.

The share of doubtful debts in receivables:

This indicator characterizes the quality of receivables. The trend of its growth indicates a decrease in the effectiveness of management of accounts receivable.

The ratio of receivables to sales (receivable ratio):

This indicator gives information about what percentage of unpaid buyers of products accounted for one ruble of sales.

Repayment period of receivables:

where D - duration of the analyzed period in days.

Based on this indicator, you can estimate for which period on average the accounts receivable are repaid.

For the analysis of the reliability of receivables, the information about the share of overdue accounts receivable in its total amount is important.

Example

Calculation of indicators that characterize the receivables of the analyzed company is shown in Table. 8.8.

Table 8.8. Analysis of accounts receivable

Metrics

Previous year

Reporting year

Change

1. Revenue, thousand rubles.

202 103

228,575

26,472

2. Average value of accounts receivable, thousand rubles.

28,268

35 288

7020

3. Average amount of doubtful accounts receivable, thousand rubles.

774

1196

& Icirc; 22

4. The ratio of accounts receivable to revenue,%

13.9

15.1

1.5

5. Period of accounts receivable turnover, days (365 * page 2: page 1)

51.1

56.4

5.3

6. The share of doubtful accounts receivable in the total amount of debt,%

2.7

3.3

0.6

As follows from the data of Table. 8.8 the state of settlements with debtors has somewhat deteriorated compared to last year. At 5.3 days, the average maturity of accounts receivable increased, which indicates a slight slowdown in its turnover. Indicative is also the dynamics of the ratio characterizing the ratio of accounts receivable to revenue. So, if in the last period one ruble of shipped products accounted for 13.9 kopecks. unpaid products, then in the analyzed period this value increased to 15.4 kopecks. All this indicates an increase in the period of repayment of accounts receivable and a slowdown in the receipt of funds from customers.

Special attention should be paid to the quality of debt and the dynamics of the share of doubtful accounts receivable. In this case, compared to last year, the share of doubtful accounts receivable increased slightly and amounted to 3.3% of the total value of accounts receivable.

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