Understanding ARIS methodology.
At once it is necessary to explain that ARIS is this and methodology , and a software product for modeling business processes of organizations. In the future chapter) under the ARIS system (or ARIS tool environment) will be understood as hardware and software that implements the ARIS methodology. Under the ARIS methodology, only an approach to the structured description of the organization's activities, developed by Professor A.-V. Scheer.
The ARIS methodology is a modern approach to the structured description of an organization's activities and presentation in the form of interrelated and complementary graphical diagrams that are easy to understand and analyze. ARIS methodology is based on the concept of integration, offering a holistic view of the processes, and represents a variety of different techniques, united in a single system approach.
ARIS is the abbreviated English expression Architecture of Integrated Information Systems, which means: the architecture of integrated information systems. By architecture is meant the aggregate technologies, providing the design, management, application and implementation of business in the form of "business" procedures of business processes of enterprises and organizations (the terms organization, enterprise and company are considered as synonyms, ie organization, enterprise and company are economic entities, the difference between these concepts in the context of this training manual is not important), as well as the design and creation of integrated information systems for supporting business processes.
ARIS methodology implements the principles of system structural analysis , the main concept of which is the structural element (object).
Structural analysis is a methodological version of system analysis. The structural analysis assumes the use of a graphical representation to describe the structure and activities of the organization. At the same time, the basic principles of structural analysis are realized: splitting into levels of abstraction with the restriction of the number of elements on each level (usually from 3 to 9); A limited context that includes only essential details at each level; use of strict formal recording rules; successive approximation to the final result (depends on the purposes of modeling).
ARIS methodology also uses decomposition and allows you to detail the subject of modeling using alternative or complementary models.
The main elements of models in ARIS methodology are the following:
• structural elements (objects) - indivisible elements of the described domain, in the form of processes, functions, operations, actions (depending on the degree of detail);
• links - the relationship between two objects that have a certain type, direction, and other properties.
Each object or link has a set of characteristics (attributes) with which you can set the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the elements being modeled.
The basis of the ARIS methodology is that any organization is considered and visually represented in all aspects, i.e. as a unified system, the description of which provides for four different "views":
• organizational structure;
• data (flows and structure);
• functions ( trees of functions);
• control and management (business processes).
For each view Three levels of analysis are supported (requirements, specifications, implementation). Each level corresponds to a certain phase of the life cycle of the information system (ARIS uses a three-phase life-cycle model): the level of requirements definition (what the system should do), the level of the design specification (the main ways of implementing the system), the level of the description of implementation (physical description of specific software and hardware ). This ensures the integrity of the system being developed.
Each level of analysis consists of its own set of different types of models, including UML diagrams, SAP R/3 diagrams, etc. Each ARIS model object has many attributes that allow controlling the process of model development, defining the conditions for the performance of the functional-cost analysis, simulation, interaction with workflow-systems, etc.
ARIS methodology provides for the possibility of presenting information using more than 80 types of models related to one or another "view". In this case, the main view In ARIS, these are processes for the modeling of which about 2/3 of the total number of models are intended, i.e. the ARIS methodology is more focused on the process approach.
It's important to remember
ARIS methodology positions itself as a designer, from which, for a specific project, depending on its goals and objectives, a local methodology is developed that corresponds to the "look" and the level of analysis and consisting of a small number of required business models and objects. In general, practice has shown that in projects the most frequently used models are:
• Organizational chart (Organizational Chart - OS);
• functional model (Function Tree - FT);
• process-event model (Extended Event-Driven Process Chain - eEPC).
These models, notations and rules for their construction will be discussed below.
Models can be created with varying degrees of proximity, with almost no limits. The degree of detail of the description depends on the objectives of the project, within which the simulation is carried out.
The purpose of the ARIS methodology. The ARIS methodology is designed specifically to visually describe the business processes and operating conditions of various organizations and enterprises, as well as to analyze their performance by various indicators in order to determine the ideal performance characteristics, reorganization their organizational structure, goals and functions, business processes, the data used. In the framework of the ARIS methodology, it is also possible to define the requirements for an automated control system and to carry out its design.
In general, ARIS methodology is effectively used for analysis and optimization of business processes (reengineering), for the introduction of standard information systems of the ERP class (such as SAP) and the introduction of quality management systems.
Analyzing and optimizing business processes in the ARIS methodology is carried out using the procedural model ARIS (which governs optimization phases), allowing you to rebuild and constantly improve business processes. The procedural model is based on a cyclic principle. New business processes are determined by analyzing existing structures, implemented by modern IT tools, and then regularly reviewed and modified.
According to the procedural model, in the analysis phase, "as is Inventory business processes, and the as is ... ( is is ). Thus, the weaknesses of business processes and potential opportunities for their optimization are revealed.
At the phase of the formation of the target concept based on the as is models, the alternative options for the target processes should be ( to be ), which should reflect the idea of how the organization will function after the improvement of the non-optimal processes.
Introduction of standard information systems of the ERP class. ERP-systems (Enterprise Resource Planning System) are enterprise resource management systems. The class of ERP includes such United States and Western ERP-systems as "R/Z", "Oracle Applications", "Vaap IV", "iRenaissance", "Axapta", "SAIL", "Galaxy" ; and others
When implementing ERP-systems in enterprises, a process-oriented approach is used, based on the allocation and consideration of business processes, each of which takes place in conjunction with other business processes of the enterprise or the external environment.
As it was said before, ARIS methodology is oriented to the process approach (about 2/3 models from the total number of models are intended for modeling of processes) and can be used for the purpose of introducing ERP systems in the enterprise.
Company SAP AG (in 2014, the company "SAP AG" registered in the European Commercial Register and officially changed its name to "SAP SE", where SE - Societas Europaea) recognized the ARIS system as a modeling tool for its R/3 management system.>
Implementation of quality management systems according to ISO 9000. GOST ISO 9000 is a series of international standards that describe the requirements for the quality management system of organizations and enterprises.
Compliance with the requirements of the standards indicates a certain level of reliability of the enterprise, i.e. the enterprise has the necessary minimum level of reliability, which will enable entry
into the market. The self-certification certificate is an external independent confirmation of the achievement of the requirements of the standard.
ARIS methodology can provide support for the whole process of preparation and direct certification under this standard. To this end, the ARIS system provides for the creation of special reports meeting the requirements of ISO 9000, and there are also models reflecting the full methodology of the ISO 9000 certification process (analysis of the existing management system in the enterprise, reorganization of business processes, personnel training and certification itself).
In the course of preparation for certification, models of value chains, EERC, organizational, role models, etc. are being developed.
Within the framework of the ARIS methodology, it is also possible to define the requirements for an automated control system and conduct its design, ensure the preparation and implementation of organizational changes in the enterprise.
It's important to remember
Using specialized ARIS methodology, specialized tasks can be solved, for example, related to simulation simulation (see Chapter 8). ARIS supports the construction of models as the processes go on in reality. Such models can play in time for both one test and a given set of them. Simulation models allow to reveal the duration of idle periods in processes (for example, the dynamics of the waiting time and the situation of lack of resources).
Another specialized task solved within the framework of the ARIS methodology is value analysis , which is performed on the basis of process models using analytical methods for evaluating and researching operations.
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