Environmental problems undermine development in the PC
In developing countries, environmental problems can undermine the process of long-term development. In many transition countries, neglect of the interests of protecting the environment for several decades has resulted in large areas being poisoned and unable to provide economic activity in the long term. In the richest countries, existing consumption patterns lead to a depletion of global resources that threatens future development around the world.
Development and the environment are not separate concepts, and problems in one of these areas can not be successfully resolved in isolation from the other. The environment is the source of resources for development. Its condition is an important criterion, and its preservation is the subject of constant attention in the development process. Successful development requires a policy that takes into account environmental considerations. This relationship was first recognized at the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992. This conference served as a model for the development of documents and other UN organizations, taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. But the problem is that these documents are not binding.
Particular danger to human life and nature is the growth in the number of nuclear power plants. An approximate scenario of their possible impact humanity has received as a result of the Chernobyl tragedy: the death of people, the necrosis of cities, lands, forests, water, air transport for thousands of kilometers of especially dangerous radiation pollutants and their precipitation in the form of sieges to cities and villages. Now, before our very eyes, an equally large-scale catastrophe is taking place, related to the accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant in Fukushima.Affected by the acceleration of the ecological crisis and the so-called local wars: in Vietnam, Kampuchea, Laos, Afghanistan, Africa, Central America. There were literally scorched huge spaces of the jungle, centuries that were untouched. This is also the result of the actions of modern civilization. But only direct military actions destroy the natural environment. Hundreds of warships conduct exercises in the World Ocean, treating it as a kind of "absolute environment" in which one can experiment as much as possible, launching into his abyss countless different shells, pouring out millions of tons of oil products.
The complex fabric of the atmosphere is broken by rockets: are we all aware of the consequences of these flights? There are also more prosaic processes - a crazy arms race, involvement in the defense industry of metals, chemicals, energy, water, etc. As a result, an ever smaller share of them remains for the needs of the person himself. It is a tragedy for civilization that the governments of different countries are unable to realize the need for rational curtailment of the production of modern weapons and the allocation of huge resources allocated for these purposes to solve the problems of peaceful development and create a new technical civilization based on environmentally safe production. >
Conservation of Earth's natural resources
A careful attitude to nature, the suspension of its degradation are topical issues that faced people, societies and states today. The country's natural wealth is often the most accessible and usable resources for development. The society must tackle the difficult tasks associated with preserving the long-term potential of its natural resources. It is necessary to strike a balance between competing needs and interests. Current social and economic needs must be met in a way that does not damage the long-term availability of these resources or the viability of ecosystems on which our lives and the lives of future generations depend.
Environmental degradation adversely affects both quality and quantity of many resources directly used by people. The consequences of insufficient attention to the deterioration of the state of natural resources can be catastrophic. Water pollution damages fish stocks. Salinization and soil erosion lead to a decrease in yields. The degradation of farmland and deforestation led to drought and erosion of soils and made malnutrition and hunger more frequent occurrences in some areas of the planet. Excessive exploitation and depletion of marine resources threatened coastal communities. Barbaric logging and deforestation of tropical rain forests led to the destruction of important natural habitats and caused damage to global biodiversity. As a result of the environmentally unsustainable practice of extracting natural resources, large areas were devastated and polluted. The most alarming is the fact that in some cases, degradation can be irreversible.
Although the conservation of natural resources involves certain restrictions, it also serves as a source of many important incentives and opportunities for new economic thinking in entrepreneurship. Changing the most well-off segments of the population to their lifestyle and attitudes towards energy consumption, along with the use of more efficient technological processes, will contribute to a more sustainable global development model. The inclusion of issues of natural resource management and their conservation in the sphere of national development interests can have many very positive consequences. Tourism, on which many countries depend, can bring significant benefits, including the creation of vital infrastructure, the expansion of direct and indirect employment, the increase in foreign exchange earnings, the spread of environmental knowledge, the expansion of international contacts and the creation of unique opportunities for strengthening national identity. It is important to develop viable tourism development strategies that would ensure the preservation of the natural environment.
Initiatives being put forward by the UN, as well as a number of Member States, also show the importance of involving local communities in all development efforts. These programs, in the course of which local people become not just third-party beneficiaries, but interested partners, have opened new prospects. In many places, they have brought significant results, helping to better understand the benefits of conserving natural resources, increasing the participation of local communities in the preservation of the environment, clean air and income growth in rural areas. They serve as an important example in which many can learn using it to their advantage.
However, the relationship between the environment and development is not limited to the rational use of natural resources. Preservation and protection of ecological balance in the world around us is an important component of not only the development of mankind, but also its survival. The welfare of the society is undermined by poor health and premature death of people, which are caused by the deterioration of air and water quality and other environmental risks. Pollutants can adversely affect health as a result of direct exposure or indirectly as a result of changes in the physical environment. Threats to health can be very diverse - from increased ultraviolet radiation to deteriorating food and water quality.
Toxic chemicals and heavy metals pollute rivers, lakes, seas and other sources of water. Many of these contaminants are difficult to remove from drinking water by conventional water treatment methods.
The task of improving the use of nature requires that entrepreneurs, household owners, farmers, the international community and governments change their behavior. For a proper reflection of environmental values in economic activity, a purposeful policy is needed. Both public and private enterprises should be held accountable for the environmental consequences of their activities, and governments should take the lead in developing policies and implementing policies that promote environmentally sound development.
The relationship between the environment, society, economy and political participation underscores the importance of considering the environmental dimension of development in a national context. The link between poverty and environmental sustainability is particularly convincing. Although poor communities often have strict ethical norms for the correct use of traditional lands, growing demographic pressures and a lack of resources often put them in a position where it is difficult for them to avoid environmental damage. The poorest sections of the population, who barely manage to make ends meet, worry only day by day about the question of how to survive. Often they are both victims and perpetrators of environmental degradation. Policies aimed at improving the state of the environment, for example, reducing water pollution, often have the most beneficial effect on the situation of the poorest sectors of society. An effective poverty reduction policy will help to contain population growth and reduce the burden on the environment.
Policies that promote technical cooperation and the efficient use of resources can also help to find solutions to environmental problems. The relationship between costs and returns and the overall impact of economic activity on the environment are constantly changing. The key to increasing sustainability is not necessarily to produce less, but rather to produce otherwise. Growing incomes can be spent on improving the state of the environment, preventing the depletion or degradation of natural resources, which requires much less expenditure than eliminating the damage caused.
The consequences of deforestation and environmental degradation have caused tension, which led to the emergence of acute conflicts. In an increasing number of regions, the triangle "poverty - resource degradation - conflict"; becomes too familiar phenomenon. Throughout the world, refugee groups fleeing from the effects of environmental degradation and resource depletion are creating an additional burden for urban areas that are already facing massive problems.
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