MARKETING IN FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
The essence, principles, marketing methods
Marketing is a complex system for organizing the production and marketing of products, focused on satisfying specific consumers and making profits based on research and forecasting of the commodity market.
With the usual sales activity, the commodity producer focuses on the average person or on the average enterprise, i.e. takes into account average needs.
The marketing-oriented merchant seeks to produce an individualized product more fully suited to the request of a particular person or enterprise. Marketing requires knowledge of the market and its conjuncture, flexible commodity policy, knowledge about the buyer.
Principles of marketing:
1. The aim of the commercial result is to master the desired market share based on a certain time, resources and responsibility.
2. Comprehensive approach to achieving the company's objectives.
3. Maximum adaptation to the conditions and requirements of the selected market with simultaneous targeted impact on it.
4. Long-term vision horizon their goals and in accordance with this the choice of the direction of activity.
Activity, aggressiveness, enterprise of managers of all levels increases the speed of perception of new ideas, problems and methods for their solution.
The main property of marketing is the production and sale to people of those goods that will necessarily be bought. And in no case should you try to impose on buyers any goods produced by the company.
Marketing methods have passed a long way of development, they have been constantly changing, improved with and in accordance with the development of market relations.
In the economic literature there are four periods of marketing development, each of which had its own methods and methods:
1860-1930 years. - commodity orientation method means the desire to improve the quality of the product, primarily based on the manufacturer's own views about the set of useful qualities of the product, service. Tastes and customer requests were secondary. The reason was, first of all, the shortage of goods and, as a result, there was an excess of demand over supply;
1930-1950. - sales targeting method , i.e. the desire to maximize sales through advertising and other methods that attract buyers to purchase goods. During this period there was an aggravation of competition, although there was still a lot of unmet demand;
1950-1960 gg. - market orientation method - consisted in the allocation of goods that are in high demand due to high consumer value, and to ensure the maximum of their sales. During this period the market was already saturated and only a wide variety of goods could attract a buyer who already began to dictate his will to the producer of goods;
1960's. and to the present day - marketing management . This method contains the following methods:
• long-term (5-15 years) long-term planning of the company's activities;
• purposeful research of the market, the goods and buyers;
• use of complex methods of demand formation and sales optimization;
• orientation to the products of market novelty, satisfying the needs of a carefully calculated group of possible buyers.
Conditions of application of marketing in the international market are of interest:
1) deep saturation of the market with goods, excess supply over demand;
2) Stronger competition for the buyer due to intense competition;
3) free market relations - from market selection to price determination
4) free activity in the enterprise to solve all managerial, financial, motivational issues.
If the first two conditions are not solved in the country or a number of other countries, then the introduction of marketing is inappropriate, since marketing costs are extremely high.
An important starting point for the success of marketing is the availability of a modern, profitable commodity.
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