Tariffs and fees
Duty. This is the type of consumption tax levied on individuals and legal entities that enter into specific relations with the state or between themselves (for example, concluding leases , transfer of securities, custody agreements). In practice and theory, there is a wide variety of types (or types) of fees: exchange (the fee collected by the exchange committee from buyers of securities), bill (the sum of money paid by the billholder for notarizing various types of protest), road (fare); patent (the fee for granting the exclusive right to use the invention in accordance with the issued patent), judicial (payment for the examination of claims and cassation complaints by legal persons and citizens), etc. We int The following kinds of duties are levied - state, foreign trade, customs, port, as well as some of their varieties.
State Fees - These are the monetary amounts collected by a specially authorized institution, for the commission of an action in the interests of enterprises, organizations and citizens and the issuance of documents of legal significance.
Customs duty is a tax that is levied in connection with the importation of foreign goods (import duty), the exportation of domestic goods abroad (export duty) or the transit of goods (transit fee). Customs duties, in turn, are divided into a whole group of species.
Foreign trade duty - is a state tax (tax) levied on goods passed through the customs border of a given country. Calculation methods and methods of application distinguish between foreign trade duties, defined as the rate to the price of taxable goods (ad valorem) or in the form of fixed rates for the corresponding unit of measurement. The list of goods subject to foreign trade duty and the rates of customs duties are given in the customs legislation.
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The Port Duty is the amount paid by the shipowner for the opportunity to enter the dock in some ports and harbors.
Tariff. Tariff is a system of rates of payment for various production and non-production services provided by organizations and companies to the population and various institutions; system of rates of payment. Types and types of tariffs are also different.
Customs Tariff is an instrument for regulating foreign trade, which is a list of duties levied in the given country on imported or exported goods, systematized according to commodity groups; contains the names of goods, the units of taxation and the rates of fees levied in the given country from imported or exported goods; contains the names of goods, units of taxation and duty rates. Customs tariffs are divided into autonomous - are established by the states unilaterally; conventional - are established by states on the basis of international agreements (they contain lower rates); combined, i.e. containing both these types of customs tariff, applying to the first countries the first approach, to the other - the second.
Export tariff is a kind of tax used for the purpose of state regulation of export deliveries of certain goods.
One of the main problems is the tariff regime of developed countries with respect to manufactured goods exported from developing countries that seek to diversify and increase their revenues by adding production costs to the export of raw materials. Raw materials often enter the markets of developed countries duty-free, but after processing the same materials are usually taxed. This makes it difficult for developing countries to search for foreign markets for the products of their manufacturing industries. In addition, many products that could be produced efficiently are produced in industrialized countries.
Competition from developing countries leads to the formation of "pressure groups" seeking to prevent the goods of these countries from entering the market of developed countries. Another problem is that, although the products of developing countries fall under the preferential import regime, most successful developing exporting countries reach the limit, after which they lose their preferential status. For example, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong (Hong Kong) and South Korea have had a long grace period in trade with the United States. However, in the late 1990s. This regime was abolished by the United States, as these countries greatly strengthened their trade and economic potential, and in some places they began to squeeze goods of American corporations. The special regime emerged in due time as a result of the pressure of developing countries in UNCTAD. It is known as the Generalized System of Preference (GSP). This regime, subject to changes and modifications, is formally acting today.
Tariffs and export subsidies. The tasks that States usually place in the area of foreign trade are not only to influence the terms of trade, but also to redistribute income, support key branches of the national economy, improving the balance of payments, etc.
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The peculiarity of tariffs and export subsidies is the emergence, as a result of their actions, of the difference between world and domestic prices. The direct effect of the tariff is a rise in the cost of imported goods in comparison with their cost abroad. Export subsidy is an additional payment to local producers for the export of goods. As a result, the price of these goods increases within the country and, accordingly, there is an incentive for their production or expansion of production. The change in prices as a result of the increase in tariffs and subsidies affects both the relative supply and the relative demand, and, accordingly, the trading environment varies both within the country and with respect to the markets of other countries.
The impact of tariffs and subsidies on world trade depends crucially on two factors: the production capacity and the size of the country. For example, if the US introduces a 20% import tariff, then, according to some estimates, the terms of trade for this very large country can improve by 15%. This means that prices for imported goods for the US will fall by 15% compared to prices for export products. And as a result of these differently directed effects from the introduction of the tariff, domestic prices will grow by only 5%. At the same time, if such a tariff is imposed by Luxembourg or Paraguay, their terms of trade are unlikely to change significantly. Experts believe that, in general, tariffs and subsidies, influencing the price factor of the goods, contribute to the development of import-substituting trends in the economy and suppress the export sector.
A special case of the negative impact of excessive tariffs is the "Metzler Paradox", similar in content to the concepts of "ruining growth" and transfer, busting recipient & quot ;. It practically does not occur, although it is likely under certain circumstances and extremely unprofessional government policies.
It is common practice for governments to make direct payments to producers in order to compensate for their losses incurred in the sale of products abroad. But more often they provide firms with other types of assistance in order to reduce the cost or increase the profitability of their foreign operations, namely a whole range of free services related to information, assistance in organizing trade deliveries and establishing contacts for conducting trade operations abroad. Such forms of subsidies in the form of services are often more economically justified than duties, since they are intended primarily to overcome market imperfections and strengthen the position of national companies.
Other types of subsidies that affect pricing are more controversial, and manufacturers often claim that they face unfair competition from, for example, "subsidized exports". What is a subsidized export? There is no unity of opinion on this issue, although in its most general form the essence is to assist exporters from the state. The state provides funding for research and development activities and programs that directly or indirectly affect the profitability of exports, using other diverse means. If developed countries in the previous decades usually criticized developing countries, demanding the abolition of the state impact on the export of agricultural products, now developing countries also demand from developed countries to abandon the state support of agricultural firms in forms of subsidies, loans and tax cuts.
There are other forms of state aid to exports, including foreign aid and loans. These forms almost always have related nature, since the recipient has to spend money in the countries creditors, helping to improve the competitiveness of overseas some goods that may otherwise remain uncompetitive. Associated assistance is of particular importance for obtaining contracts for the implementation of projects for the creation of telecommunications, railways and power plants. It is generally accepted that about 1/3 of the capital goods that are sold around the world, funded by packet connected assistance. Most developed countries also provide their exporters with credit risk insurance, thereby reducing the risk of non-payments for overseas sales. Another common scheme of assistance is the combination of assistance with loans so that the rate of obligations does not seem too low for competing countries. (These questions, though related to the pricing factor, have different aspects and analyzed in other chapters of the textbook.)Customs valuation. Customs officers of many countries traditionally enjoy a fairly wide discretion when determining the value of imported products for setting ad valorem duties. This freedom of choice is aimed at preventing exporters and importers from showing invoices at an arbitrarily low price in order to avoid a high fee. However, in practice, the right to freedom of choice is sometimes used as an arbitrary means of preventing imports of foreign products by overstating its value. This is a direct way to influence the price of goods. At present, there is a uniform valuation technique, originally applied by developed countries. Customs officers are required to preliminarily examine the price of the goods specified in the invoice. If it is not specified or its authenticity is doubtful, they must evaluate based on the value of identical goods, and if they are not - based on similar goods coming in at the same or almost the same time. If these methods can not be applied, customs officers calculate the price on the basis of the final cost of selling this product or based on reasonable costs for it. Another problem of customs valuation may be related to the fact that many different goods are involved in trade. It is quite easy (accidentally or intentionally) to classify a product in such a way that it will be subject to a higher duty and thereby influence the price of the goods.
Other types of direct impact on prices. The state often uses such means of influencing prices as special fees (for example, for consular and customs clearance) and clearance documents), the requirements under which customs fees should be made prior to shipment, the minimum prices for the sale of goods after their customs clearance " and so on
These kinds of effects on prices are varied, and the formal-bureaucratic application of them on the basis of unnecessarily "free" interpretation causes great damage to the country, including in the form of corrupt officials. The maximum clarity and certainty of a normative act are necessary, as well as the corresponding clarity (transparency) in the execution of operations for the movement of goods.
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